ТОS-1A — Russian 24-barrel multiple rocket launcher
|Place of origin||Soviet Union / Russia|
|Used by||Soviet Union, Russian Federation|
|Wars||Soviet-Afghan War, Second Chechen War|
|Designer||Omsk Transmash Design Bureau|
|Weight||45.3 t (101,411 lbs)|
|Length||9.5 m (31 ft 2 in)|
|Width||3.6 m (11 ft 10 in)|
|Height||2.22 m (7 ft 3 in)|
|Caliber||220 mm (8.66 in)|
|Rate of fire||30 rounds/15 s|
|Effective range||500–3,500m (TOS-1)|
840 hp (626.39 kW)
TOS-1 (Russian: ТОС-1 - тяжёлая огнемётная система, English: Heavy Flame Thrower System) is a Soviet 220mm 30-barrel (original system, Ob.634 or TOS-1M) or 24-barrel (Ob.634B or TOS-1A) multiple rocket launcher and thermobaric weapon mounted on a T-72 tank chassis. TOS-1 was designed for defeating enemy personnel in fortifications, in open country, and in lightly armoured vehicles and transport. First combat tests took place in 1988-1989 in the Panjshir Valley during the Soviet war in Afghanistan. The TOS-1 was shown for the first time in public in 1999 in Omsk.
The idea of a heavy short-range MLRS to launch rockets equipped with incendiary and thermobaric warheads arose in late 1970s. The combat system consisting of the combat vehicle, rockets, and loading vehicle was developed in early 1980s at KBTM in Omsk and was named TOS-1, remaining a secret development for a long time.
The TOS-1 is intended to engage military personnel, equipment, and buildings, including fortified constructions. The combat vehicle acts within the combat order of infantry and tanks. The large mass of the launcher and the need for a high-level of protection (due to the relatively short range of 3,500 m) helped determine the use of the chassis of the T-72 main battle tank. The reloading vehicle TZM was built on the chassis of a cross-country truck KrAZ-255B and equipped with a crane for loading/unloading of the launcher.
In 2001, the improved TOS-1A system entered service. the improved system's range has been extended to 6 kilometers and its ballistic computer has been upgraded.
The nickname Buratino matches the name of the hero of a Russian version of a Pinocchio-style tale (by Alexey Tolstoy), because of the big "nose" of the launcher.
- The "combat vehicle" BM-1 (rus. Боевая машина) (Ob.634B) based on a modified T-72A chassis and fitted with a rotating launch system for 24 unguided thermobaric rockets. All rockets can be launched within 6 to 12 seconds. The launch vehicle is equipped with a fire control system with ballistic computer, aiming sight and laser range finder 1D14. The other standard equipment consists of a TKN-3A sight for the commander, a navigation system GPK-59, radio station R-163-50U, intercom R-174 and smoke grenade launcher type 902G with 4 barrels. The 3-man crew is armed with one AKS-74, one RPKS-74, three RPG-26 and 10 hand grenades F-1. The BM-1 is fitted with the same equipment as the T-72 tank (NBC protection, fire-fighting, observation etc.).
- Two re-supply vehicles TZM-T (rus. Транспортно-заряжающая машина) (Ob.563), fitted with a 10 kN crane. Each vehicle carries 2x12 spare rockets and 400 litres of fuel for the BM-1 and has a combat weigh of 39 t. The TZM-T has a crew of three, armed with two AKS-74, one RPKS-74, five RPG-26 and 10 hand grenades F-1.
- A set of rockets NURS (rus. Неуправляемый реактивный снаряд) MO.1.01.04 and MO.1.01.04M. These are 3.3 and 3.7 m long and weigh 173 and 217 kg respectively. The original rocket for the TOS-1A had a range of only 2,700 m but there is an improved version with a range of 6,000 m.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to TOS-1.|
- Video of the TOS-1 in action (Russian)
- GlobalSecurity profile
- FAS profile
- TOS-1A article on Military Today
- TOS-1 article on Military Today
- Detailed article on Rbase (Russian)
- V. Kuzmin's photo blog about the 2010 Victory Parade in Moscow (Russian)
- Eugene Yanko, Copyright 1997 - firstname.lastname@example.org. "TOS-1 Buratino Flamethrower | Russian Arms, Military Technology, Analysis of Russia's Military Forces". Warfare.ru. http://warfare.be/?catid=353&linkid=1582&title=tos-1-buratino-flamethrower. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
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