|Tarmashirin Khan Barlas|
|A Timurid era illustration of Emir Timur|
|Preceded by||Amir Hussain|
|Succeeded by||Khalil Sultan|
|Born||9 April 1336|
Kesh, Chagatai Khanate (Now in Uzbekistan)
|Died||18 February 1405 (aged 68)|
Otrar, Syr Darya (Now in Kazakhstan)
|Spouse(s)||Saray Mulk Khanum|
Timur, Tarmashirin Khan, Emir Timur (Persian: تیمور Timūr, Chagatai: Temür "iron"; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Tamerlane (Persian: تيمور لنگ Timūr(-e) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turko-Mongol ruler of Barlas lineage. He conquered West, South and Central Asia and founded the Timurid dynasty. He was the grandfather of Ulugh Beg, who ruled Central Asia from 1411 to 1449, and the great-great-great-grandfather of Babur Beg, founder of the Mughal Empire, which ruled parts of South Asia for around four centuries, from 1526 until 1857.
Timur envisioned the restoration of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan. As a means of legitimating his conquests, Timur relied on Islamic symbols and language, referring to himself as the Sword of Islam and patronizing educational and religious institutions. He converted nearly all the Borjigin leaders to Islam during his lifetime. His armies were inclusively multi-ethnic. During his lifetime Timur emerged as the most powerful ruler in the Muslim world after defeating the Mamluks of Egypt and Syria, the emerging Ottoman Empire and the declining Sultanate of Delhi. Timur also decisively defeated the Christian Knights Hospitaller at Smyrna, styling himself a Ghazi. By the end of his reign Timur had also gained complete control over all the remnants of the Chagatai Khanate, Ilkhanate, Golden Horde and even attempted to restore the Yuan dynasty.
Timur's armies were feared throughout Asia, Africa, and Europe, sizable parts of which were laid waste by his campaigns. Scholars estimate that his military campaigns caused the deaths of 17 million people, amounting to about 5% of the world population, leading to a predominantly barbaric legacy.
Timur is also recognized as a great patron of art and architecture, as he interacted with Muslim intellectuals such as Ibn Khaldun and Hafiz-i Abru.
- 1 Early history
- 2 Personality
- 3 Military leader
- 4 Rise to power
- 5 Legitimization of Timur's rule
- 6 Period of expansion
- 7 Campaign against the Tughlaq Dynasty
- 8 Campaigns in the Levant
- 9 Attempts to attack the Ming Dynasty
- 10 Exchanges with Europe
- 11 European Views on Timur
- 12 Legacy
- 13 Gallery
- 14 Descendants of Timur
- 15 See also
- 16 Notes
- 17 External links
Timur was born in Transoxiana, near the City of Kesh (an area now better known as Shahrisabz, "the green city"), some fifty miles south of Samarkand in modern day Uzbekistan, part of the Chagatai Khanate. His father, Taraqai, was a minor noble belonging to the Barlas tribe. The Barlas, who were originally a Mongol tribe that became Turkified. According to Gérard Chaliand, Timur was a Muslim but he saw himself as Genghis Khan's heir. Though not a Chinggisid, he clearly sought to invoke the legacy of Genghis Khan's conquests during his lifetime.
At the age of eight or nine, Timur and his mother and brothers were carried as prisoners to Samarkand by an invading Mongol army.
In his childhood, Timur and a small band of followers raided travelers for goods, especially animals such as sheep, horses, and cattle. At around 1363, it is believed that Timur tried to steal a sheep from a shepherd but was shot by two arrows, one in his right leg and another in his right hand, where he lost two fingers. Both injuries caused him to be crippled for life. Some believe that Timur suffered his crippling injuries while serving as a mercenary to the khan of Sistan in Khorasan in what is known today as Dasht-i Margo (Desert of Death) in south-west Afghanistan. Timur's injuries have given him the name of Timur the Lame or Tamerlane by Europeans.
Timur was a Muslim, but while his chief official religious counsellor and advisor was the Hanafi scholar 'Abdu 'l-Jabbar Khwarazmi, his particular persuasion is not known. In Tirmidh, he had come under the influence of his spiritual mentor Sayyid Barakah, a leader from Balkh who is buried alongside Timur in Gur-e Amir. Timur was known to hold Ali and the Ahlul Bayt in high regard and has been noted by various scholars for his "pro-Alid" stance. Despite this, Timur was noted for attacking Shiites on Sunni grounds and therefore his own religious inclinations remain unclear.
Timur is regarded as a military genius and a tactician, with an uncanny ability to work within a highly fluid political structure to win and maintain a loyal following of nomads during his rule in Central Asia. He was also considered extraordinarily intelligent- not only intuitively but also intellectually. In Samarkand and his many travels, Timur, under the guidance of distinguished scholars was able to learn Persian, Mongolian, and Turkic languages. More importantly, Timur was characterized as an opportunist. Taking advantage of his Turco-Mongolian heritage, Timur frequently used either the Islamic religion or the law and traditions of the Mongol Empire to achieve his military goals or domestic political aims.
In about 1360 Timur gained prominence as a military leader whose troops were mostly Turkic tribesmen of the region. He took part in campaigns in Transoxiana with the Khan of Chagatai. His career for the next ten or eleven years may be thus briefly summarized from the Memoirs. Allying himself both in cause and by family connection with Kurgan, the dethroner and destroyer of Volga Bulgaria, he was to invade Khorasan at the head of a thousand horsemen. This was the second military expedition that he led, and its success led to further operations, among them the subjugation of Khorezm and Urganj.
Following Kurgan's murder, disputes arose among the many claimants to sovereign power; this infighting was halted by the invasion of the energetic Chagtaid Tughlugh Timur of Kashgar, another descendant of Genghis Khan. Timur was dispatched on a mission to the invader's camp, which resulted in his own appointment to the head of his own tribe, the Barlas, in place of its former leader, Hajji Beg.
The exigencies of Timur's quasi-sovereign position compelled him to have recourse to his formidable patron, whose reappearance on the banks of the Syr Darya created a consternation not easily allayed. One of Tughlugh's sons was entrusted with the Barlas's territory, along with the rest of Mawarannahr (Transoxiana), but he was defeated in battle by the bold warrior he had replaced, at the head of a numerically far inferior force.
Rise to power
It was in this period that Timur reduced the Chagatai khans to the position of figureheads while he ruled in their name. During this period, Timur and his brother-in-law Husayn, who were at first fellow fugitives and wanderers in joint adventures, became rivals and antagonists. The relationship between them began to become strained after Husayn abandoned efforts to carry out Timur's orders to finish off Ilya Khoja (former governor of Mawarannah) close to Tishnet.
Timur began to gain a following of people in Balkh that consisted of merchants, fellow tribesmen, Muslim clergy, aristocracy and agricultural workers because of his kindness in sharing his belongings with them, as contrasted with Husayn, who alienated these people, took many possessions from them via his heavy tax laws and selfishly spent the tax money building elaborate structures. At around 1370 Husayn surrendered to Timur and was later assassinated by a chief of a tribe, which allowed Timur to be formally proclaimed sovereign at Balkh. He married Husayn's wife Saray Mulk Khanum, a descendant of Genghis Khan, allowing him to become imperial ruler of the Chaghatay tribe.
One day Aksak Temür spoke thusly:
"Khan Züdei (in China) rules over the city. We now number fifty to sixty men, so let us elect a leader." So they drove a stake into the ground and said: "We shall run thither and he among us who is the first to reach the stake, may he become our leader". So they ran and Aksak Timur, as he was lame, lagged behind, but before the others reached the stake he threw his cap onto it. Those who arrived first said: "We are the leaders." ["But,"] Aksak Timur said: "My head came in first, I am the leader." Meanwhile, an old man arrived and said: "The leadership should belong to Aksak Timur; your feet have arrived but, before then, his head reached the goal." So they made Aksak Timur their prince.
Legitimization of Timur's rule
Timur's Turco-Mongolian heritage provided opportunities and challenges as he sought to rule the Mongol Empire and the Muslim world. According to the Mongol traditions, Timur could not claim the title of khan or rule the Mongol Empire because he was not a descendant of Genghis Khan. Therefore, Timur set up a puppet Chaghatay khan, Suyurghatmish, as the nominal ruler of Balkh as he pretended to act as a "protector of the member of a Chinggisid line, that of Chinggis Khan's eldest son, Jochi."
As a result, Timur never used the title of khan because the name khan could only be used by those who come from the same lineage as Genghis Khan himself. Timur instead used the title of amir meaning general, and acting in the name of the Chagatai ruler of Transoxania.
To reinforce his position in the Mongol Empire, Timur managed to acquire the royal title of son-in-law when he married a princess of Chinggisid descent.
Likewise, Tamerlane could not claim the supreme title of the Islamic world, caliph, because the “office was limited to the Quraysh, the tribe of the Prophet Muhammad.” Therefore, Tamerlane reacted to the challenge by creating a myth and image of himself as a “supernatural personal power”” ordained by God. Since Tamerlane had a successful career as a conqueror, it was easy to justify his rule as ordained and favored by God since no ordinary man could be a possessor of such good fortune that resistance would be seen as opposing the will of Allah. Moreover, the Islamic notion that military and political success was the result of Allah’s favor had long been successfully exploited by earlier rulers. Therefore, Tamerlane’s assertions would not have seemed unbelievable to his fellow Islamic people.
Period of expansion
Timur spent the next 35 years in various wars and expeditions. He not only consolidated his rule at home by the subjugation of his foes, but sought extension of territory by encroachments upon the lands of foreign potentates. His conquests to the west and northwest led him to the lands near the Caspian Sea and to the banks of the Ural and the Volga. Conquests in the south and south-West encompassed almost every province in Persia, including Baghdad, Karbala and Northern Iraq.
One of the most formidable of Timur's opponents was another Mongol ruler, a descendant of Genghis Khan named Tokhtamysh. After having been a refugee in Timur's court, Tokhtamysh became ruler both of the eastern Kipchak and the Golden Horde. After his accession, he quarrelled with Timur over the possession of Khwarizm and Azerbaijan. However, Timur still supported him against the Russians and in 1382 Tokhtamysh invaded the Muscovite dominion and burned Moscow.
After the death of Abu Sa'id, ruler of the Ilkhanid Dynasty, in 1335, there was a power vacuum in Persia. In 1383, Timur started the military conquest of Persia. He captured Herat, Khorasan and all eastern Persia by 1385; he captured almost all of Persia by 1387. Of note during the Persian campaign was the capture of Isfahan. When Isfahan surrendered to Timur in 1387, he treated it with relative mercy as he normally did with cities that surrendered. However, after the city revolted against Timur's taxes by killing the tax collectors and some of Timur's soldiers. Timur ordered the massacre of the city's citizens with the death toll reckoned at between 100,000 and 200,000. An eye-witness counted more than 28 towers constructed of about 1,500 heads each. This has been described as a "systematic use of terror against towns...an integral element of Tamerlane's strategic element" which he viewed as preventing bloodshed by discouraging resistance. His massacres were selective and he spared the artistic and technical (e.g. engineers) elites.
In the meantime Tokhtamysh, now khan of the Golden Horde, turned against his patron and in 1385 invaded Azerbaijan. The inevitable response by Timur resulted in the Tokhtamysh–Timur war. In the initial stage of the war Timur won a victory at the Battle of the Kondurcha River. After the battle Tokhtamysh and some of his army were allowed to escape. After Tokhtamysh's initial defeat Timur then invaded Muscovy to the north of Tokhtamysh's holdings. Timur's army burned Ryazan and advanced on Moscow. He was then pulled away before reaching the Oka River by Tokhtamysh's renewed campaign in the south.
In the first phase of the conflict with Tokhtamysh, Timur led an army of over 100,000 men north for more than 700 miles into the steppe. He then rode west about 1,000 miles advancing in a front more than 10 miles wide. During this advance Timur's army got far enough north to be in a region of very long summer days causing complaints by his Muslim soldiers about keeping a long schedule of prayers.It was then that Tokhtamysh's army was boxed in against the east bank of the Volga River in the Orenburg region and destroyed at the Battle of the Kondurcha River.
It was in the second phase of the conflict that Timur took a different route against the enemy by invading the realm of Tokhtamysh via the Caucasus region. The year 1395 saw the Battle of the Terek River concluding the titanic struggle between the two monarchs.
Tokhtamysh was not able to restore his power or prestige. He was killed about a decade after the Terek River battle in the area of present day Tyumen.
During the course of Timur's campaigns his army destroyed Sarai, the capital of the Golden Horde, and Astrakhan, subsequently disrupting the Golden Horde's Silk Road. The Golden Horde no longer held power after the coming of Tamerlane.
In May 1393 Timur's army invaded the Anjudan. This crippled the Ismaili village only one year after his assault on the Ismailis in Mazandaran. The village was prepared for the attack. This is evidenced by it containing a fortress and a system of underground tunnels. Undeterred, Timur’s soldiers flooded the tunnels by cutting into a channel overhead. Timur’s reasons for attacking this village are not yet well-understood. However, it has been suggested that his religious persuasions and view of himself as an executor of divine will may have contributed to his motivations. The Persian historian Khwandamir explains that an Ismaili presence was growing more politically powerful in Persian Iraq. A group of locals in the region was dissatisfied with this and, Khwandamir writes, these locals assembled and brought up their complaint with Timur, possibly provoking his attack on the Ismailis there.
Campaign against the Tughlaq Dynasty
In 1398, Timur invaded northern India, attacking the Delhi Sultanate ruled by Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq of the Tughlaq Dynasty. He was opposed by Ahirs and Jats but the Sultanate at Delhi did nothing to stop him. After crossing the Indus river on 30 September 1398, he sacked Tulamba and massacred its inhabitants. Then he advanced and captured Multan by October.
He justified his campaign towards Delhi as a religious war against the Hindu religion practiced in the city and also as a chance for to gain more riches in a city that was lacking control. By all accounts, Timur's campaigns in India were marked by systematic slaughter and other atrocities on a truly massive scale inflicted mainly on the subcontinent's Hindu population.
Timur crossed the Indus River at Attock (now Pakistan) on 24 September 1398. His invasion did not go unopposed and he encountered resistance by the Governor of Meerut during the march to Delhi. Timur was still able to continue his approach to Delhi, arriving in 1398, to fight the armies of Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq, which had already been weakened by a succession struggle within the royal family.
Capture of Delhi (1398)
The battle took place on 17 December 1398. Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq and Mallu Iqbal's army had war elephants armored with chain mail and poison on their tusks. With his Tatar forces afraid of the elephants, Timur ordered his men to dig a trench in front of their positions. Timur then loaded his camels with as much wood and hay as they could carry. When the war elephants charged, Timur set the hay on fire and prodded the camels with iron sticks, causing them to charge at the elephants howling in pain: Timur had understood that elephants were easily panicked. Faced with the strange spectacle of camels flying straight at them with flames leaping from their backs, the elephants turned around and stampeded back toward their own lines. Timur capitalized on the subsequent disruption in Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq's forces, securing an easy victory. Delhi was sacked and left in ruins. Before the battle for Delhi, Timur executed 100,000 captives:
The capture of the Delhi Sultanate was one of Timur's greatest victories, arguably surpassing the likes of Alexander the Great and Genghis Khan because of the harsh conditions of the journey and the achievement of taking down one of the richest cities at the time.
After Delhi fell to Timur's army, uprisings by its citizens against the Turkic-Mongols began to occur, causing a bloody massacre within the city walls. After three days of citizens uprising within Delhi, it was said that the city reeked of decomposing bodies of its citizens with their heads being erected like structures and the bodies left as food for the birds.
Timur's invasion and destruction of Delhi continued the chaos that was still consuming India and the city would not be able to recover from the great loss it suffered for almost a century.
Campaigns in the Levant
Before the end of 1399, Timur started a war with Bayezid I, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and the Mamluk sultan of Egypt Nasir-ad-Din Faraj. Bayezid began annexing the territory of Turkmen and Muslim rulers in Anatolia. As Timur claimed sovereignty over the Turkmen rulers, they took refuge behind him. Timur invaded Syria, sacked Aleppo and captured Damascus after defeating the Mamluk army. The city's inhabitants were massacred, except for the artisans, who were deported to Samarkand.
In a form of rectification, in 1400 Timur invaded Christian Armenia and Georgia. Of the surviving population, more than 60,000 of the local people were captured as slaves, and many districts were depopulated.
He invaded Baghdad in June 1401. After the capture of the city, 20,000 of its citizens were massacred. Timur ordered that every soldier should return with at least two severed human heads to show him. (Many warriors were so scared they killed prisoners captured earlier in the campaign just to ensure they had heads to present to Timur.)
In the meantime, years of insulting letters had passed between Timur and Bayezid. Finally, Timur invaded Anatolia and defeated Bayezid in the Battle of Ankara on 20 July 1402. Bayezid was captured in battle and subsequently died in captivity, initiating the twelve-year Ottoman Interregnum period. Timur's stated motivation for attacking Bayezid and the Ottoman Empire was the restoration of Seljuq authority. Timur saw the Seljuks as the rightful rulers of Anatolia as they had been granted rule by Mongol conquerors, illustrating again Timur's interest with Genghizid legitimacy.
After the Ankara victory, Timur's army ravaged Western Anatolia, with Muslim writers complaining that the Timurid army acted more like a horde of savages than that of a civilized conqueror. But Timur did take the city of Smyrna, a stronghold of the Christian Knights Hospitalers, thus he referred to himself as ghazi or "Warrior of Islam".
Timur was furious at the Genoese and Venetians whose ships ferried the Ottoman army to safety in Thrace. As Lord Kinross reported in The Ottoman Centuries, the Italians preferred the enemy they could handle to the one they could not.
While Timur invaded Anatolia, Qara Yusuf assaulted Baghdad and captured it in 1402. Timur returned to Persia from Anatolia and sent his grandson Abu Bakr ibn Miran Shah to reconquer Baghdad, which he proceeded to do. Timur then spent some time in Ardabil, where he gave Ali Safavi, leader of the Safaviyya, a number of captives. Subsequently, he marched to Khorasan and then to Samarkhand, where he spent nine months celebrating and preparing to invade Mongolia and China.
He ruled over an empire that, in modern times, extends from southeastern Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and Iran, through Central Asia encompassing part of Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, and even approaches Kashgar in China. The conquests of Timur are claimed to have caused the deaths of up to 17 million people, an assertion impossible to verify. Timur's campaigns sometimes caused large and permanent demographic changes. Northern Iraq remained predominantly Assyrian Christian until attacked, looted, plundered and destroyed by Timur, leaving its population decimated by systematic mass slaughter.
Of Timur's four sons, two (Jahangir and Umar Shaykh) predeceased him. His third son, Miran Shah, died soon after Timur, leaving the youngest son, Shah Rukh. Although his designated successor was his grandson Pir Muhammad b. Jahangir, Timur was ultimately succeeded in power by his son Shah Rukh. His most illustrious descendant Babur founded the Islamic Mughal Empire and ruled over most of Afghanistan and North India. Babur's descendants Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb, expanded the Mughal Empire to most of the Indian subcontinent.
Markham, in his introduction to the narrative of Clavijo's embassy, states that his body "was embalmed with musk and rose water, wrapped in linen, laid in an ebony coffin and sent to Samarkand, where it was buried." His tomb, the Gur-e Amir, still stands in Samarkand, though it has been heavily restored in recent years.
Attempts to attack the Ming Dynasty
By 1368 the new Chinese Ming Dynasty had driven the Mongols out of China. The first Ming Emperor Hongwu and his successor Yongle demanded, and received, homage from many Central Asian states as the political heirs to the former House of Kublai. The Ming emperor's treatment of Timur as a vassal did not sit well with the conqueror. In 1394 Hongwu's ambassadors eventually presented Timur with a letter addressing him as a subject. He summarily had the ambassadors Fu An, Guo Ji, and Liu Wei detained. He then had them and their 1,500 guards executed. Neither Hongwu's next ambassador, Chen Dewen (1397) nor the delegation announcing the accession of the Yongle Emperor fared any better.
Timur eventually planned to conquer China. To this end Timur made an alliance with the Mongols of the Northern Yuan Dynasty and prepared all the way to Bukhara. The Mongol leader Enkhe Khan sent his grandson Öljei Temür, also known as Buyanshir Khan after he converted to Islam while he stayed at the court of Timur in Samarkand. In December 1404 Timur started military campaigns against the Ming Dynasty and detained a Ming envoy. But he was attacked by fever and plague when encamped on the farther side of the Sihon (Syr-Daria) and died at Atrar (Otrar) on 17 February 1405 before ever reaching the Chinese border. Only after that were the Ming envoys released.
Timur preferred to fight his battles in the spring. However, he died en route during an uncharacteristic winter campaign against the ruling Chinese Ming Dynasty. It was one of the bitterest winters on record. His troops are recorded as having to dig through five feet of ice to reach drinking water.
Exchanges with Europe
Timur had numerous epistolary and diplomatic exchanges with various European states, especially Spain and France.
Relations between the court of Henry III of Castile and that of Timur played an important part in medieval Spanish Castilian diplomacy. In 1402, the time of the Battle of Ankara, two Spanish ambassadors were already with Timur: Pelayo de Sotomayor and Fernando de Palazuelos. Later, Timur sent to the court of Castile and León a Chagatay ambassador named Hajji Muhammad al-Qazi with letters and gifts.
In return, Henry III of Castile sent a famous embassy to Timur's court in Samarkand in 1403–06, led by Ruy Gonzales de Clavijo, with two other ambassadors, Alfonso Paez and Gomez de Salazar. On their return, Timur affirmed that he regarded the king of Castile "as his very own son".
According to Clavijo, Timur's good treatment of the Spanish delegation contrasted with the disdain shown by his host toward the envoys of the "lord of Cathay" (i.e., the Ming Dynasty Yongle Emperor), the Chinese ruler. Clavijo's visit to Samarkand allowed him to report to the European audience on the news from Cathay (China), which few Europeans had been able to visit directly in the century that had passed since the travels of Marco Polo.
The French archives preserve:
- A 30 July 1402 letter from Timur to Charles VI of France, suggesting that he send traders to the Orient. It is written in Persian.
- A May 1403 letter. This is a Latin transcription of a letter from Timur to Charles VI, and another from Amiza Miranchah, his son, to the Christian princes, announcing their victory over Bayezid, in Smyrna.
A copy has been kept of the answer of Charles VI to Timur, dated 15 June 1403.
European Views on Timur
Timur arguably had the most impact on the Renaissance culture and early modern Europe. Timur's achievements have both fascinated and horrified Europeans from the fifteenth century to the early nineteenth century.
European views of Timur were mixed throughout the fifteenth century with some European countries calling him an ally, while others saw him as a threat to Europe because of his rapid expansion and brutality.
When Timur took down the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid at Ankara, he was often praised and seen as a trusted ally by European rulers such as Charles VI of France and Henry IV of England because they believe he was saving Christianity from the Turkish Empire in the Middle East. Charles VI of France and Henry IV of England also praised Timur because his victory at Ankara allowed Christian merchants to remain in the Middle East and allowed for their safe return home to both France and England. Timur was also praised because it is believed that he helped restore the right of passage for Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land.
Some European countries viewed Timur as a barbaric enemy who presented a threat to both European culture and the religion of Christianity. Timur's rise to power moved many leaders, such as Henry III of Castille, to send embassies to Samarkand to personally scout out Timur, learn about his people, make alliances with him and to try to convince him to convert to Christianity in order to avoid war.
I am not a man of blood; and God is my witness that in all my wars I have never been the aggressor, and that my enemies have always been the authors of their own calamity.—Timur, after the conquest of Aleppo
Timur's legacy is a mixed one. While Central Asia blossomed under his reign, other places such as Baghdad, Damascus, Delhi and other Arab, Georgian, Persian, and Indian cities were sacked and destroyed and their populations massacred. He was responsible for the effective destruction of the Christian Church in much of Asia. Thus, while Timur still retains a positive image in Muslim Central Asia, he is vilified by many in Arabia, Persia, and India, where some of his greatest atrocities were carried out. However, Ibn Khaldun praises Timur for having unified much of the Muslim world when other conquerors of the time could not.
Timur's military talents were unique. He planned all his campaigns years in advance, even planting barley for horse feed two years ahead of his campaigns. He used propaganda, in what is now called information warfare, as part of his tactics. His campaigns were preceded by the deployment of spies whose tasks included collecting information and spreading horrifying reports about the cruelty, size, and might of Timur’s armies. Such psychological warfare eventually weakened the morale of threatened populations and caused panic in the regions that he intended to invade.
For his time he had an uncharacteristic concern for his troops which inspired fierce loyalty from them. They were not paid, however; instead their incentives were from looting captured territory—a bounty that included horses, women, precious metals and stones; in other words whatever they, or their newly captured slaves, could carry away from the conquered lands.
Timur's short-lived empire also melded the Turko-Persian tradition in Transoxiania, and in most of the territories which he incorporated into his fiefdom, Persian became the primary language of administration and literary culture (diwan), regardless of ethnicity. In addition, during his reign, some contributions to Turkic literature were penned, with Turkic cultural influence expanding and flourishing as a result. A literary form of Chagatai Turkic came into use alongside Persian as both a cultural and an official language.
Tamerlane virtually exterminated the Church of the East, also known to Westerners as the Nestorian church, which had previously been a major branch of Christianity but afterwards was largely confined to certain parts of Iraq.
Timur became a relatively popular figure in Europe for centuries after his death, mainly because of his victory over the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid. The Ottoman armies were at the time invading Eastern Europe and Timur was ironically seen as a sort of ally.
Timur has now been officially recognized as a national hero of newly independent Uzbekistan. His monument in Tashkent now occupies the place where Marx's statue once stood.
Muhammad Iqbal, a philosopher, poet and politician in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement,[better source needed] composed a notable poem entitled Dream of Timur, the poem itself was inspired by a prayer of the last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II:
The Sharif of the Hijaz suffers due to the divisive sectarian schisms of his faith, And lo! that young Tatar (Timur) has boldly re-envisioned magnanimous victories of overwhelming conquest.
In 1794, Sake Deen Mahomed published his travel book, The Travels of Dean Mahomet. The book begins with the praise of Genghis Khan, Timur, and particularly the first Mughal Emperor Babur. He also gives important details on the then incumbent Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II.
Timur's generally recognised biographers are Ali Yazdi, commonly called Sharaf ud-Din, author of the Zafarnāmeh (Persian: ظفرنامه), translated by Petis de la Croix in 1722, and from French into English by J. Darby in the following year; and Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abdallah, al-Dimashiqi, al-Ajami (commonly called Ahmad Ibn Arabshah) translated by the Dutch Orientalist Colitis in 1636. In the work of the former, as Sir William Jones remarks, "the Tatarian conqueror is represented as a liberal, benevolent and illustrious prince", in that of the latter he is "deformed and impious, of a low birth and detestable principles." But the favourable account was written under the personal supervision of Timur's grandson, Ibrahim, while the other was the production of his direst enemy.
Among less reputed biographies or materials for biography may be mentioned a second Zafarnāmeh, by Nizam al-Din Shami, stated to be the earliest known history of Timur, and the only one written in his lifetime. Timur's purported autobiography, the Tuzk-e-Taimuri ("Memoirs of Temur") is a later fabrication, although most of the historical facts are accurate.
Timur's body was exhumed from his tomb in 1941 by the Soviet anthropologist Mikhail M. Gerasimov. From his bones it was clear that Timur was a tall and broad chested man with strong cheek bones. Gerasimov reconstructed the likeness of Timur from his skull. At 5 feet 8 inches (1.73 meters), Timur was tall for his era. Gerasimov also confirmed Timur's lameness due to a hip injury. Gerasimov also found that Timur's facial characteristics conformed to that of fairly Mongoloid features with somewhat Caucasoid admixture. In the study of "Anthropological composition of the population of Central Asia" shows the cranium of Timur predominate the characters of the South Siberian Mongoloid type. Timur is classified as being closer to the Mongoloid race with some admixture.
It is alleged that Timur's tomb was inscribed with the words, "When I rise from the dead, the world shall tremble." It is also said that when Gerasimov exhumed the body, an additional inscription inside the casket was found reading, "Who ever opens my tomb, shall unleash an invader more terrible than I." In any case, two days after Gerasimov had begun the exhumation, Adolf Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa, the largest military invasion of all time, upon the U.S.S.R. Timur was re-buried with full Islamic ritual in November 1942 just before the Soviet victory at the Battle of Stalingrad.
In the arts
- Tamburlaine the Great, Parts I and II (English, 1563–1594): play by Christopher Marlowe
- Tamerlane (1701): play by Nicholas Rowe (English)
- Tamerlano (1724): opera by George Frideric Handel, in Italian, based on the 1675 play Tamerlan ou la mort de Bajazet by Jacques Pradon.
- Bajazet (1735): opera by Antonio Vivaldi, portrays the capture of Bayezid I by Timur
- Il gran Tamerlano (1772): opera by Josef Mysliveček that also portrays the capture of Bayezid I by Timur
- Tamerlane: first published poem of Edgar Allan Poe (American, 1809–1849).
- Timur is the deposed, blind former King of Tartary and father of the protagonist Calaf in the opera Turandot (1924) by Giacomo Puccini, libretto by Giuseppe Adami and Renato Simoni.
- Timour appears in the story Lord of Samarkand by Robert E. Howard.
- Tamerlan: novel by Colombian writer Enrique Serrano in Spanish
- Timur Lang is also the name of the warlord that shall be defeated in the game Might and Magic IX, a sort of joke using the names of Timur Leng and this game's designer's one, Timothy Lang.
- Timur is featured in the "Mongols" episode of the History Channel miniseries Barbarians.
- Tamerlan appears in the Russian movie Dnevnoy Dozor (Day Watch), in which he steals the chalk of fate.
- Tamerlane is the name of the corporation which is taking over Central Asia in the 2008 satire War, Inc.
- Tamburlaine: Shadow of God: a BBC Radio 3 play by John Fletcher, broadcast 2008, is a fictitious account of an encounter between Tamburlaine, Ibn Khaldun, and Hafez.
- Tamerlane (1928): historical novel by Harold Lamb.
Descendants of Timur
Sons of Timur
- Jahangir Mirza ibn Timur
- Umar Shaikh Mirza I
- Miran Shah ibn Timur
- Shahrukh Mirza ibn Timur
Sons of Jahangir
- Pir Muhammad bin Jahangir Mirza
Sons of Umar Shaikh Mirza I
- Pir Muhammad ibn Umar Shaikh Mirza I
- Iskandar ibn Umar Shaikh Mirza I
- Rustam ibn Umar Shaikh Mirza I
- Bayqarah ibn Umar Shaikh Mirza I
- Mansur ibn Bayqarah
- Husayn ibn Mansur bin Bayqarah
- Badi' al-Zaman
- Muhammed Mu'min
- Muzaffar Hussein
- Ibrahim Hussein
- Badi' al-Zaman
- Husayn ibn Mansur bin Bayqarah
- Mansur ibn Bayqarah
Sons of Miran Shah
- Khalil Sultan ibn Miran Shah
- Abu Bakr ibn Miran Shah
- Muhammad ibn Miran Shah
- Abu Sa'id Mirza
- Umar Shaikh Mirza II
- Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur
- the Mughals
- Jahangir Mirza II
- Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur
- Umar Shaikh Mirza II
- Abu Sa'id Mirza
Sons of Shahrukh Mirza
- Mirza Muhammad Taraghay – better known as Ulugh Beg
- Ghiyath-al-Din Baysonqor
- Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza ibn Baysonqor
- Ibrahim Mirza
- Sultan Muhammad ibn Baysonqor
- Yadigar Muhammad
- Mirza Abul-Qasim Babur ibn Baysonqor
- Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza ibn Baysonqor
- Sultan Ibrahim Mirza
- Abdullah Mirza
- Mirza Soyurghatmïsh Khan
- Mirza Mohammed Juki
- Ahmad (Jalayirids)
- Global Empire
- List of the Muslim Empires
- Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent
- Harold Lamb author of the historical novel Tamerlane (1928)
- "Timur". Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica Online Edition. 2011. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/596358/Timur.
- Josef W. Meri (2005). Medieval Islamic Civilization. Routledge. p. 812. http://books.google.com/books?id=H-k9oc9xsuAC&printsec=frontcover&hl=en#v=onepage.
- "Belonging to a minor military family, and of Turkish origin, Timur was born in Transoxiana (present-day Uzbekistan) in the fourteenth century. He rose to prominence in the service of the local Mongol ruler, claimed to be descended from Chingiz-Khan, and defeated all competitors." Massoume Price (2005). Iran's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook. ABC-CLIO. p. 56. http://books.google.com/books?id=gzpdq679oJwC&printsec=frontcover&hl=en#v=onepage.
- David Eugene Smith. History of mathematics. p. 289. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=12qdOZ0gsWoC&pg=PA289&dq=ulugh+beg+mathematics+genius&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-vRYT6GoE8rg8APBhpDXDg&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=ulugh%20beg%20mathematics%20genius&f=false.
- "Science institutions in Islamic civilisation, Science and technology in the Turkish and Islamic world". http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ki3YAAAAMAAJ&q=ulugh+beg+cultural+centre+observatory&dq=ulugh+beg+cultural+centre+observatory&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ntlYT9-_JsfO8QOig-jsDg&ved=0CFsQ6AEwCDgK.
- A.J.J. Mekking (2009). The Global Built Environment as a Representation of Realities. Amsterdam University Press. p. 121. ISBN 9789087280635. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Qi3NPTlVX0QC&pg=PA121#v=onepage&q&f=false.
- "Timur". Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Academic Edition. 2007. http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9072544.
- ., Quotation: "... Timur first united under his leadership the Turko-Mongol tribes located in the basins of the two rivers." "Central Asia, history of Timur". Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Edition. 2007. http://search.eb.com/eb/article-73545.
- "History of Central Asia". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 13 December 2008. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/102315/history-of-Central-Asia.
- "Tīmūr Lang" entry from B.F. Manz. Encyclopaedia of Islam.
- "Tamerlane, c.1336–1405, b. Kesh, near Samarkand. He is also called Timur Leng (Timur the lame). He was the son of a tribal leader, and a maternal descendant of Genghis Khan. He was from a Mongol tribe, Barlos. There were mongol tribes used to live in the area where his father was a leader. Timur spent his early military career in subduing his rivals in what is now Turkistan; by 1369 he firmly controlled the entire area from his capital at Samarkand." "Timur". Columbia Encyclopedia. 2001-07. http://web.archive.org/web/20080630063329/http://www.bartleby.com/65/ti/Timur.html.
- Beatrice Forbes Manz, Temür and the Problem of a Conqueror's Legacy, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Third Series, Vol. 8, No. 1 (Apr., 1998), 25; "In his formal correspondance Temur continued throughout his life as the restorer of Chinggisid rights. He even justified his Iranian, Mamluk and Ottoman campaigns as a re-imposition of legitimate Mongol control over lands taken by usurpers...".
- Michal Biran, The Chaghadaids and Islam: The Conversion of Tarmashirin Khan (1331–34) , Journal of American Oriental Society, Vol. 122, No. 4 (Oct. – Dec., 2002), 751; "Temur, a non-Chinggisid, tried to build a double legitimacy based on his role as both guardian and restorer of the Mongol Empire.".
- Marozzi, Justin (2004). Tamerlane: sword of Islam, conqueror of the world. Great Britain: HarperCollinsPublisher. pp. 91.
- Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World
- Matthew White: Atrocitology: Humanity's 100 Deadliest Achievements, Canongate Books, 2011, ISBN 9780857861252, section "Timur"
- "The Rehabilitation Of Tamerlane". Chicago Tribune. 17 January 1999. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1999-01-17/news/9901170256_1_uzbek-islam-karimov-tashkent.
- J.J. Saunders, The history of the Mongol conquests (page 174), Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., 1971, ISBN 0812217667
- Marozzi, pp 341–342.
- "Tamerlane". AsianHistory. http://asianhistory.about.com/od/profilesofasianleaders/p/TimurProf.htm. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "Central Asia, history of Timur", in Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Edition, 2007. (Quotation:"...Under his leadership, Timur united the Mongol tribes located in the basins of the two rivers.")
- "Islamic world", in Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Edition, 2007. Quotation: "Timur (Tamerlane) was of Mongol descent and he aimed to restore Mongol power...."
- Carter V. Findley, The Turks in World History, Oxford University Press, 2005, Oxford University Press, 2005, ISBN 978-0-19-517726-8, p. 101.
- G. R. Garthwaite, "The Persians", Malden, ISBN 978-1-55786-860-2, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2007. (p.148) Quotation:...Timur's tribe, the Barlas, had Mongol origins but had become Turkic-speaking ... However, the Barlus tribe is considered one of the original Mongol tribes and there are "Barlus Ovogton" people who belong to Barlus tribe in modern Mongolia.
- M.S. Asimov & C. E. Bosworth, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, UNESCO Regional Office, 1998, ISBN 92-3-103467-7, p. 320: "... One of his followers was [...] Timur of the Barlas tribe. This Mongol tribe had settled [...] in the valley of Kashka Darya, intermingling with the Turkish population, adopting their religion (Islam) and gradually giving up its own nomadic ways, like a number of other Mongol tribes in Transoxania ..."
- Gérard Chaliand, Nomadic Empires: From Mongolia to the Danube translated by A.M. Berrett, Transaction Publishers, 2004. translated by A.M. Berrett. Transaction Publishers, p.75. ISBN 0-7658-0204-X. Limited preview at Google Books. p. 75., ISBN 0-7658-0204-X, p.75., "Timur Leng (Tamerlane) Timur, known as the lame (1336–1405) was a Muslim Turk. He aspired to recreate the empire of his ancestors. He was a military genius who loved to play chess in his spare time to improve his military tactics and skill. And although he wielded absolute power, he never called himself more than an emir.", "Timur Leng (Tamerlane) Timur, known as the lame (1336–1405) was a Muslim Turk from the Umus of Chagatai who saw himself as Genghis Khan's heir."
- Timur did not claim to be a descendant of Genghis Khan either, as in 1370 he installed a puppet khan as the ruler of the Chagatai, in recognition of the Mongol laws that only a blood descendant of Genghis Khan was allowed to rule. (Marozzi, p. 342)
- Richard C. Martin, Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World A-L, Macmillan Reference USA, 2004, ISBN 978-0-02-865604-5, p. 134.
- "Biography of Timur". Triposo. http://www.triposo.com/section/Timur. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Manz Forbes, Beatrice (1988). "Tamerlane and the Symbolism of Sovereignty". pp. 116.
- Marozzi, Justin (2004). Tamerlane:Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World. Hammersmith, London: HarperCollins. pp. 31.
- "Tamerlan, Tamerlane: What’s in a Name? An Islamic Warrior’s ‘Systematic Use of Terror’". Moralcompassblog. http://moralcompassblog.com/2013/04/19/tamerlan-tamerlane-whats-in-a-slayers-name-a-muslim-warriors-systematic-use-of-terror/. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- The Descendants of Sayyid Ata and the Rank of Naqīb in Central Asia by Devin DeWeese Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 115, No. 4 (Oct. – Dec., 1995), pp. 612–634
- Four studies on the history of Central Asia, Volume 1 By Vasilij Vladimirovič Bartold p.19
- Islamic art By Barbara Brend p.130
- "Personalities that changed the world". Young bites. http://youngbites.in/newsdet.aspx?q=43545. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Virani, Shafique N. The Ismailis in the Middle Ages: A History of Survival, A Search for Salvation (New York: Oxford University Press), 2007, p. 114.
- Manz, Beatrice Forbes (1989). The rise and rule of Tamerlane. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press. pp. 16.
- Marozzi, Justin (2004). Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World. Hammersmith, London: HarperCollins. pp. 9.
- Marozzi, Justin (2004). Tamerlane: sword of Islam, conqueror of the world. Great Britain: HarperCollinsPublisher.
- The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001–2005. "Tamerlane, c.1336–1405, Turkic conqueror, b. Kesh, near Samarkand. He is also called Timur Leng (Faisal R.). The son of a tribal leader, in 1370 Timur became an in-law of a direct descendant of Genghis Khan, when he destroyed the army of Husayn of Balkh. After the battle, he took Husayn of Balkh's widow, Saray Mulk-khanum (daughter of Qazan, the last Chaghatai Khan of Mawarannah, into his harem as his fourth wife. For the rest of his life he called himself Temur Gurgan -son-in-law- of the Great Khan Khan <Tamerlame, by Justin Marozzi>. Timur spent his early military career subduing his rivals in what is now Turkistan; by 1369 he controlled the entire area from his capital at Samarkand."
- Marozzi, Justin (2004). Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World. Hammersmith, London: HarperCollins. pp. 40.
- Marozzi, Justin (2004). Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World. Hammersmith, London: HarperCollins. pp. 41–42.
- Marozzi, Justin (2004). Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World. Hammersmith, London: HarperCollins. pp. 43–45.
- Sinor, D., "XIV The Making of a Great Khan", page 242, Studies in Medieval Inner Asia, Variorum, 1997. ISBN 0-86078-632-3
- Radloff, W., Proben der Volkslitteratur der türkischen stämme Süd-Sibiriens, IV. St Petersburg, page 308
- Manz, Beatrice Forbes (2002). "Tamerlane's Career and Its Uses". pp. 3.
- Manz Forbes, Beatrice (1988). "Tamerlane and the Symbolism of Soverignty". pp. 106.
- Manz, Beatrice Forbes (1989). The rise and rule of Tamerlane. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press. pp. 14.
- Manz, Beatrice Forbes (2002). "Tamerlane's Career and Its Uses". pp. 3.
- Nicholas V. Raisanovsky; Mark D. Steinberg: A History of Russia Seventh Edition, pg 93
- Chaliand, Gerard; Arnaud Blin (2007). The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to Al Qaeda. University of California Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0520247093. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=YmpfgNqmVXYC&pg=PA87&dq=isfahan+Timur%7Ctamerlane+genocidal&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UoGjUI7aJKe80QWAk4CAAQ&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=isfahan%20Timur.
- Fisher, W.B.; Jackson, P.; Lockhart, L.; Boyle, J.A. : The Cambridge History of Iran, p55.
- Nicholas V. Raisanovsky; Mark D. Steinberg: A History of Russia Seventh Edition, pg 94
- Virani, Shafique N. The Ismailis in the Middle Ages: A History of Survival, A Search for Salvation (New York: Oxford University Press), 2007, p. 116.
- Volume III: To the Year A.D. 1398, Chapter: XVIII. Malfúzát-i Tímúrí, or Túzak-i Tímúrí: The Autobiography or Memoirs of Emperor Tímúr (Taimur the lame). Page 389. 1. Online copy, 2. Online copy) from: Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; published by London Trubner Company 1867–1877.
- Singh, Raj Pal. Rise of the Jat power. Books.google.co.in. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=TKhuAAAAMAAJ&q=ahirs+and+jats&dq=ahirs+and+jats&hl=en&ei=oQV_TeTYAcjprAfs7_CmBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CD4Q6AEwBDgK. Retrieved 2012-05-22.
- [dead link]
- Hunter, Sir William Wilson (1909). "The Indian Empire: Timur's invasion 1398". The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 2. p. 366. http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V02_401.gif.
- "Timur's Account of His Invasion of India and Sack of Delhi". British Raj. http://www.ibiblio.org/britishraj/Jackson5/chapter09.html. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- "The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Timurid Empire)". Ucalgary.ca. http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/islam/mongols/timurid.html. Retrieved 2012-05-22.
- Mallu who later received the title of Iqbal Khan was a noble in Siri an ally of Muqarrab Khan. But later on betrayed him and Nusrat Khan, and allied with Nasir-ud-din Mahmud Shah. History Of Medieval India; V.D. Mahajan p.205
- Marozzi, Justin (2004). Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World. Hammersmith, London: HarperCollins. pp. 267.
- Marozzi, Justin (2004). Tamerlane: Sword of Islam Conqueror of the World. Hammersmith, London: HarperCollins. pp. 269.
- Marozzi, Justin (2004). Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World. Hammersmith, London: HarperCollins. pp. 271–273.
- Marozzi, Justin (2004). Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World. Hammersmith, London: HarperCollins. pp. 274.
- "The Turco-Mongol Invasions". Rbedrosian.com. http://rbedrosian.com/atmi4.htm. Retrieved 2012-05-22.
- Stevens, John. The history of Persia. Containing, the lives and memorable actions of its kings from the first erecting of that monarchy to this time; an exact Description of all its Dominions; a curious Account of India, China, Tartary, Kermon, Arabia, Nixabur, and the Islands of Ceylon and Timor; as also of all Cities occasionally mention'd, as Schiras, Samarkand, Bokara, &c. Manners and Customs of those People, Persian Worshippers of Fire; Plants, Beasts, Product, and Trade. With many instructive and pleasant digressions, being remarkable Stories or Passages, occasionally occurring, as Strange Burials; Burning of the Dead; Liquors of several Countries; Hunting; Fishing; Practice of Physick; famous Physicians in the East; Actions of Tamerlan, &c. To which is added, an abridgment of the lives of the kings of Harmuz, or Ormuz. The Persian history written in Arabick, by Mirkond, a famous Eastern Author that of Ormuz, by Torunxa, King of that Island, both of them translated into Spanish, by Antony Teixeira, who liv'd several Years in Persia and India; and now render'd into English.
- Graziella Caselli, Gillaume Wunsch, Jacques Vallin (2005). "Demography: Analysis and Synthesis, Four Volume Set: A Treatise in Population". Academic Press. p.34. ISBN 0-12-765660-X
- Nestorians, or Ancient Church of the East at Encyclopædia Britannica
- Turnbull, Stephen (30 January 2007). The Great Wall of China 221 BC-1644 AD. Osprey Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-84603-004-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=umbyD8fIYTAC&pg=PA23#v=onepage&q=&f=false. Retrieved 2010-03-26.
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- C. P. Atwood-Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire, see: Northern Yuan Dynasty
- Adela C.Y. Lee. "Tamerlane (1336–1405) – ''The Last Great Nomad Power''". Silkroad Foundation. http://www.silk-road.com/artl/timur.shtml. Retrieved 2012-05-22.
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- Document preserved at Le Musée de l'Histoire de France, code AE III 204. Mentioned Dossier II, 7, J936
- Mentioned Dossier II, 7 bis
- Mentioned Dossier II, 7 ter
- Milwright, Marcus (2006). "So Despicable a Vessel: Representations of Tamerlane in Printed Books of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries". pp. 317.
- Knobler, Adam (November 1995). "The Rise of Timur and Western Diplomatic Response, 1390–1405". pp. 341.
- Knobler, 341–344
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- Gibbon, Edward, Decline and Fall on the Roman Empire, Modern Library, v. iii, p. 665.
- Frances Carney Gies (September/October 1978). "The Man Who Met Tamerlane". http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/197805/the.man.who.met.tamerlane.htm.
- Manz, Beatrice Forbes (1999). The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane. Cambridge University Press, p.109. ISBN 0-521-63384-2. Limited preview at Google Books. p.109. "In Temür's government, as in those of most nomad dynasties, it is impossible to find a clear distinction between civil and military affairs, or to identify the Persian bureaucracy as solely civil or the Turko-Mongolian solely with military government. In fact, it is difficult to define the sphere of either side of the administration and we find Persians and Chaghatays sharing many tasks. (In discussing the settled bureaucracy and the people who worked within it I use the word Persian in a cultural rather than ethnological sense. In almost all the territories which Temür incorporated into his realm Persian was the primary language of administration and literary culture. Thus the language of the settled 'diwan' was Persian and its scribes had to be thoroughly adept in Persian culture, whatever their ethnic origin.) Temür's Chaghatay emirs were often involved in civil and provincial administration and even in financial affairs, traditionally the province of Persian bureaucracy."
- Roy, Olivier (2007). The new Central Asia. I.B. Tauris. p. 7. ISBN 1-84511-552-X.
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- Marozzi, Justin (2006). Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81465-X. Limited preview at Google Books
- Stier, Roy (1998). Tamerlane: The Ultimate Warrior. BookPartners. ISBN 1-885221-77-0.
- Anthropological composition of the population of Central Asia: and the ethnogenesis of its peoples by Lev Vasilʹevich Oshanin, Henry Field
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- Mark & Ruth Dickens. "Timurid Architecture in Samarkand". Oxuscom.com. http://www.oxuscom.com/timursam.htm. Retrieved 2012-05-22.
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