|Type 63 107mm rocket launcher|
Type 63 rocket launcher
|Type||Multiple rocket launcher|
|Place of origin||People's Republic of China|
|Used by||People's Republic of China, Soviet Bloc, non-aligned, others|
|Wars||2011 Libyan civil war, Afghanistan war, Afghan civil war, Syrian civil war|
|Manufacturer||State Factory 847|
|Produced||1963 - ?|
|Variants||Type 81 SP version on truck|
|Weight||602 kg (1,327 lb)|
|Length||2.90 m (9 ft 6 in)|
|Width||1.65 m (5 ft 5 in)|
|Height||0.91 m (3 ft)|
|Shell||HE, HE-I and HE-frag|
|Elevation||-3° to +57°|
|Muzzle velocity||385 m/s (1,260 ft/s)|
|Maximum range||8.05 km (5 mi)|
The Type 63 multiple rocket launcher is a towed, 12-tube, 107mm rocket launcher produced by the People's Republic of China in the early 1960s and later exported and manufactured globally. Although no longer serving with active infantry units, the Type 63 is still in People's Liberation Army service with specialized formations such as mountain infantry units and special forces detachments. The Type 63 was widely used in the PLA until the late 1980s. It was adopted as the successor of the Type 50-5 of 102mm.
The launcher's 12 tubes are arranged in three removable rows of four each, mounted on a single-axle carriage with rubber tires. The Type 63 originally fired a 18.8 kilogram rocket (Type 63-2) with a 1.3 kilogram warhead. Ammunition for the Type 63 was later improved (Type 75 and Type 81 series), although the overall weight of the rocket remained the same. A fixed amount of propellant is contained in the rocket motor. The steel-cased rocket is stabilized with spin imparted by six angled nozzles in its base. Type 63 rockets may be launched without the launcher; improvised firing can employ tubing, rails or even dirt berms. The Type 63 was distributed on the basis of six per infantry regiment, or 18 per infantry division. For airborne and mountain units the lighter Type 63-I was developed.
The Type 63 and its rockets are license-built in several countries including:
- Sudan - Taka.
- Iran - Fajr-1 of D.I.O. with Haseb-1 rocket.
- South Africa - RO 107 of Mechem Developments.
- North Korea - Type 75.
- Turkey - T-107 of MKEK with rockets TR-107 "Anadolu" and TRB-107.
- Egypt - RL812/TLC of the Helwan Machinery and Equipment Factory (Factory 999).
BM-12 nomenclature issue
NATO and western sources have used the Soviet-style designation BM-12 to describe this weapon system, and further even ascribe Soviet origin and initial manufacture of both launcher and rockets. However, there is no evidence in non-western sources of Soviet development or production, or of the BM-12 moniker being applied. Very similar Type 488 or Type 50-5 102mm rockets were manufactured in China and used in the Korean War prior to development of the Type 63.
It appears the systems designated BM-12 (for example in Afghanistan and Libya) were or are all of Chinese origin, being merely used or cross-traded by Soviet interests.
Multiple rocket launchers
- The Chinese Type 81 SPMRL 107mm is a self-propelled export version, based on the Nanjing NJ-230 truck.
- North Korea has developed versions with 18 and 24 launch tubes that are mounted on vehicles such as the tracked VTT-323 or the wheeled M1992.
- Roketsan of Turkey has designed an improved 107mm multiple rocket launch system, consisting of a HMMWV with two 12-round launch modules and a fire control system. The system uses the TR-107 and TRB-107 rockets but the range has been increased to 11 km.
Single-tube rocket launchers
A number of countries have developed single-tube, man-portable rocket launchers that fire the same type of rockets:
- China: Type 85 with an empty weight of 22.5 kg.
- Egypt: PRL-81
- South Africa: Inflict of Mechem Developments with an empty weight of 26 kg.
The Type 63 has been exported to many countries including:
- South Africa (Launchers captured in Angola, rockets manufactured locally)
- JAA, p. 594.
- Jeremy Kelly (August 21, 2012). "Despite drones and blimps, rocket attacks in Afghanistan prove hard to stop". http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Global-News/2012/0821/Despite-drones-and-blimps-rocket-attacks-in-Afghanistan-prove-hard-to-stop-video.
- Brian Anderson (2012). "Chinese-Made 107mm Rockets Are the Workhorses of Insurgencies (and Goons)". Motherboard. http://motherboard.vice.com/blog/107.
- JAA, p. 593.
- "Type 63 107mm Rocket". Fas.org. http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/row/type-63-r.htm. Retrieved 2013-04-01.
- MIC page on Small Arms including Taka
- "Defense & Security Intelligence & Analysis: IHS Jane's | IHS". Articles.janes.com. http://articles.janes.com/articles/Janes-Armour-and-Artillery/Aerospace-Industries-Organization-107-mm-12-round-Fadjr-1-multiple-rocket-launcher-system-Iran.html. Retrieved 2013-04-01.
- "Defense & Security Intelligence & Analysis: IHS Jane's | IHS". Articles.janes.com. http://articles.janes.com/articles/Janes-Armour-and-Artillery/Mechem-Developments-107-mm-RO-107-12-round-towed-multiple-rocket-launcher-system-South-Africa.html. Retrieved 2013-04-01.
- "Defense & Security Intelligence & Analysis: IHS Jane's | IHS". Articles.janes.com. http://articles.janes.com/articles/Janes-Armour-and-Artillery/107-mm-12-round-RL812-TLC-multiple-rocket-launcher-Egypt.html. Retrieved 2013-04-01.
- "Egypt :: Helwan Machinery and Equipment Co. .::. حلوان للآلات و المعدات :: تفاصيل المنتجات الحربيه". Fact999.momp.gov.eg. http://fact999.momp.gov.eg/Ar/MilProductDetials.aspx?pro=hMF/Ihxili5ZUAKbNEFn0Iu8g1ve7yeLfUVhTAlV1yw=#. Retrieved 2013-04-01.
- Jalali; Ali Ahmad, & Grau; Lester W., (2002), Afghan guerrilla warfare: in the words of the Mujahideen fighters, Zenith Imprint, pg. 407, ISBN 0760313229
- http://www.janes.com/articles/Janes-Armour-and-Artillery/NORINCO-107-mm-12-round-Type-63-and-Type-81-multiple-rocket-systems-China.html Type 63
- "Defense & Security Intelligence & Analysis: IHS Jane's | IHS". Articles.janes.com. http://articles.janes.com/articles/International-Defence-Review-2005/Roketsan-considers-feasibility-of-shore-bombardment-system.html. Retrieved 2013-04-01.
- "Defense & Security Intelligence & Analysis: IHS Jane's | IHS". Articles.janes.com. http://articles.janes.com/articles/Janes-Armour-and-Artillery/Mechem-Developments-107-mm-Inflict-single-tube-rocket-launcher-South-Africa.html. Retrieved 2013-04-01.
- (JAA) Jane's Armour and Artillery 1981-82, Christopher Foss (ed.), London: Jane's Publishing Company Ltd., 1981. ISBN 0-7106-0727-X.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Type 63 multiple rocket launcher.|
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