A Type 99 tank at the China People's Revolution Military Museum in Beijing during the 2007 Our troops towards the sun exhibition.
|Type||Main battle tank|
|Place of origin||People's Republic of China|
|Number built||640 Type 98/99|
|Length||Hull: 7.7 metres (25 ft)|
|Width||3.5 metres (11 ft)|
|Height||Hull: 2.25 metres (7.4 ft)|
|Armor||Welded turret, ERA, laser dazzler, active defense system|
|125 millimetres (4.9 in) smoothbore gun with ATGM capability|
|Type 85 cupola heavy machine gun|
Type 59 7.62 millimetres (0.300 in) coaxial machine gun
1,500 hp (1,119 kW)
|500 kilometres (310 mi)|
|Speed||Road: 80 kilometres per hour (50 mph)|
Off-road: 80 kilometres per hour (50 mph)
History[edit | edit source]
Development[edit | edit source]
According to army-technology.com, China's third-generation MBT program may have started in the late-1970s, with Norinco receiving the contract in 1989. The prototype, the Type 90, included a Russian 125 mm gun with an autoloader. Analysis of the Gulf War led to further revisions, and ultimately to the Type 98. The Type 98 was based on a T-72 hull lengthened by 1 metre.
According to globalsecurity.org, the Type 99 is a variant of the pre-production Type 98.
Deployment[edit | edit source]
Design[edit | edit source]
The Type 99 is a 52-54 t. tank. It is based on the Type 90-II chassis, and an upgrade of the Type 98. Compared to the Type 98, the Type 99 has Type 99 has conformal 2nd gen ERA, a 2nd generation thermal sight, countermeasure laser dazzler, and a more powerful engine.
Counter Measures and Communications[edit | edit source]
Armament[edit | edit source]
The main armament is a 2-plane stabilized 125 mm. smoothbore gun with a carousel-style autoloader. The gun may be fired under both computerized and manual control. 42 rounds are carried, including 22 in the autoloader. The rate of fire is 8 rounds per minute using the autoloader, and 2 rounds per minute with manual loading. The Type 99A2 mounts an improved 125 mm. gun.
Main gun ammunition includes APFSDS-T, HEAT, Frag-HE-T, and gun-launched anti-tank missiles (ATGM). The gun may fire a range of Russian and ex-Warsaw Pact ammnunition; this includes the BM-42M, for which a version with a depleted uranium penetrator may be available. The Type 99 may fire an ATGM similar to the 9M119 Svir; the Type 99A2 may fire an ATGM similar to the improved 9M119M Invar.
Armor[edit | edit source]
The turret is welded with protection comparable to the T-90A and Western tanks. Track skirts are mounted. Composite panels are available. Conformal 2nd/3rd generation explosive reactive armour are mounted; the Type 99A2 may mount 3rd generation (Relikt-type) ERA.
Fire control and observation[edit | edit source]
The fire control system is the ISFCS-212 with an IR automatic target tracker. Also mounted are a laser rangefinder, laser target designator, an IR searchlight, and an improved 2nd generation thermal sight.
Propulsion[edit | edit source]
The Type 99 is powered by a 1500 hp diesel engine. At a combat mass of 54 t this gives a power-to-weight ratio of about 27.78 hp/ton. The maximum road and off-road speeds are 80 km/h and 60 km/h respectively. The cruising range is 500 km.
Variants[edit | edit source]
- Type 98: Early version. Powered by a 1200 hp engine. 1st generation ERA may have been an option.
- Type 99
- Type 99A2: Prototype testing was underway by August 2007 and believed to be the standard deployed Type 99 variant in 2011; upgradable from Type 99. The improved main gun may fire an Invar-type ATGM. It mounts 3rd generation (Relikt-type) ERA, and an active protection system.
Operators[edit | edit source]
Related or preceding designs[edit | edit source]
Tanks of comparable role, performance and era[edit | edit source]
- AMX Leclerc – French main battle tank
- Ariete – Italian main battle tank
- Arjun MBT: Indian main battle tank
- Challenger 2 – British main battle tank
- Leopard 2 – German main battle tank
- M1 Abrams – US main battle tank
- K2 Black Panther – ROK main battle tank
- M-84AS – Serbian main battle tank
- M-95 Degman – Croatian main battle tank
- PT-91 – Polish main battle tank
- T-84 – Ukrainian main battle tank
- T-90 – Russian main battle tank
Notes[edit | edit source]
- US Army TRADOC Intelligence Support Activity] (2011:5-45)
- US Army TRADOC Intelligence Support Activity] (2011:5-40)
- "ZTZ99 Main Battle Tank, China". army-technology.com. http://www.army-technology.com/projects/type99chinese-main/. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- "Type 99 Main Battle Tank". globalsecurity.org. 7 June 2015. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/type-99.htm. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- "Type 98 Main Battle Tank". globalsecurity.org. 7 June 2015. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/type-98.htm. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- United States Office of the Secretary of Defense (2008). Military Power of the People’s Republic of China (Report). p. 5. Archived from the original on 28 February 2010. https://web.archive.org/web/20100228192752/http://www.defense.gov/pubs/pdfs/China_Military_Report_08.pdf. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- US Army TRADOC Intelligence Support Activity] (2011:5-46)
- Weng, Jonathan (24 August 2007). "China trials enhanced Type 99 MBT - Jane's Defence News". Janes.com. Archived from the original on 26 December 2007. https://web.archive.org/web/20071226112211/http://www.janes.com/news/defence/jdw/jdw070824_1_n.shtml. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- International Institute for Strategic Studies (2014). Hacket, James. ed. The Military Balance 2014. Oxfordshire: Routledge. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-85743-722-5.
- US Army TRADOC Intelligence Support Activity. Ground Systems. Worldwide Equipment Guide. 1 (2011 ed.). http://cgsc.contentdm.oclc.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p4013coll11/id/2089/filename/2090.pdf/mapsto/pdf/type/singleitem. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
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