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COMMAND PILOT WINGS

USAF Command Pilot wings

U.S. Air Force aeronautical ratings are military aviation skill standards established and awarded by the United States Air Force for commissioned officers participating in "regular and frequent flight", [n 1] either aerially or in space, in performance of their duties. USAF aeronautical badges, commonly referred to as "wings" from their shape and their historical legacy, are awarded by the Air Force in recognition of degrees of achievement and experience. Officers earning these badges and maintaining their requirements are classified as rated officers and receive additional pay and allowances.

The first U.S. military aviator ratings were awarded in 1912, and the issuance of badges for recognition of the award began in 1913. The division of ratings into multiple skill levels and categories began in 1914 and expanded during World War I. With minor variations in numbers and titles of ratings, the system remained largely unchanged until 1940, when the current system of pilot ratings was introduced. During World War II, as many as 19 aeronautical ratings were recognized and awarded by the Army Air Forces, but most were discontinued after the war when the USAF came into being.

USAF ratings gradually expanded until seven categories and 21 ratings exist currently. The most recent change added the RPA (Remotely Piloted Aircraft) Pilot rating, effective 13 December 2010. Although in much smaller numbers, enlisted personnel were historically eligible to be rated until 1949. Since the later 1950s, highly-trained enlisted personnel, along with officers whose duties do not include flying, are recognized by the awarding of Air Force Occupational Badges.

OverviewEdit

For all categories of aeronautical ratings, to be eligible for the rating and to wear the appropriate badge, an officer must be medically qualified to fly and also be qualified by flying status proficiency. Certified flight officers who develop medical conditions that disqualify them from flying are classified DNIF (Duties Not Including Flying). DNIF may be temporary or permanent. Officers placed on permanent DNIF status are either cross-trained into another career field, or separated from the Air Force, depending on the severity of their medical condition.

The Astronaut "qualifier" is awarded only by the Air Force Chief of Staff for rated officers formally qualified to perform duties at least 50 miles above the earth's surface and who have participated in at least one operational mission, and has a distinctive Astronaut Badge, consisting of a "shooting star" qualifier device superimposed on their rated badge.[1]

The seven categories of aeronautical ratings, as authorized by Title 10, U.S.C. 8691, are:[2]

  • Pilot: awarded by the Commander or delegated wing commanders, Air Education and Training Command (AETC)
  • Navigator: awarded by the Commander or delegated wing commanders, AETC[n 2]
  • Combat Systems Officer (CSO): awarded by the Commander or delegated wing commanders, AETC[n 3]
  • Air Battle Manager (ABM): awarded by the Commander or delegated air control wing commanders, AETC[3]
  • RPA Pilot: awarded by the Commander or delegated wing commanders, Air Combat Command,[n 4] or Commander, Air Force Reserve Command[n 5]
  • Observer: awarded by the Senior Air Force Officer, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Badge is identical to that worn by USAF Navigators and CSOs. In current practice, is awarded with the astronaut distinguishing insignia to those USAF officer astronauts who are not previously rated USAF Pilots or USAF Navigators/CSOs. Although identical to the badge worn by Navigators and CSOs, recipients are not graduates of USAF Navigator or CSO training.
  • Flight Surgeon: awarded by the Commander, USAF School of Aerospace Medicine

Evolution of the USAF ratings systemEdit

General of the Air Force Hap Arnold

Gen. H.H. Arnold, wearing both Command Pilot and 1913 Military Aviator badges

From the Aviation Act (40 Stat. 243), 27 July 1917:

"That officers detailed in or attached to the aviation section of the signal corps may, when qualified therefore, be rated as junior military aviator, military aviator, junior military aeronaut, and military aeronaut... Provided further, that any officer attached to the aviation section of the signal corps for any military duty requiring him to make regular and frequent flights shall receive an increase of 25 per centum of the pay of his grade and length of service under his commission."[4]

Civil ratingsEdit

Aeronautical ratings were established on 23 February 1912, by War Department Bulletin No. 6, as a new measurement of pilot skill.[5] Before that time most pilots of the Aeronautical Division, U.S. Signal Corps soloed by the "short hop method" (also known as "grass-cutting"), in which student pilots, flying alone, learned to handle airplane controls on the ground, taxied in further practice until just short of takeoff speeds, and finally took off to a height of just ten feet, gradually working up to higher altitudes and turns. The practice resulted in the first pilot death only a month into training. At least three of these pilots had been previously instructed by Glen Curtiss at North Island field, California. Concurrently, two pilots (Henry H. Arnold and Thomas DeWitt Milling) were instructed by the Wright Brothers and certified by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) in July 1911.

Military AviatorEdit

To establish formal standards of certification, the Army created the Military Aviator rating and published requirements on 20 April 1912. The first rating was awarded to future General of the Air Force Henry H. Arnold, on 5 July 1912.[6] The first rating requirements were:

  • Attain an altitude of at least 2,500 feet;
  • Pilot an aircraft for at least five minutes in a wind of 15 m.p.h. velocity or greater;
  • Carry a passenger to an altitude of 500 feet, with a combined weight of pilot and passenger of 250 pounds or more, and make a deadstick landing to within 150 feet of a designated point; and
  • Make a military reconnaissance flight of at least 20 miles cross-country at an average altitude of 1,500 feet.[7]
USA - Aviator Wings - 1913

Military Aviator badge, 1913

War Department General Order No. 39, dated 27 May 1913, certified 24 officers including Arnold as "qualified", and authorized issuance of a certificate and badge. A number of designs for the badge were considered before the War Department chose a design of an eagle holding Signal Corps flags in its talons, suspended from a bar embossed with "Military Aviator", and had the dies manufactured. A group of 14 aviators still detailed to the Signal Corps was recommended on 29 September 1913 to receive the badge, and the two gold proofs were issued 16 October 1913, to Captain Charles DeF. Chandler and Lt. Thomas D. Milling, both of whom had also received the first ratings with Arnold on 5 July 1912. All 24 officers certified by G.O. 39, or their survivors,[n 6] were eventually issued the badge.[8]

In 1914, Congress established the Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps, incorporating, expanding and superseding the Aeronautical Division. Two levels of qualification were specified in War Department Bulletin No. 35 on 4 May 1914, with aviators below the rank of captain rated as Junior Military Aviator and those captain and above rated as Military Aviator (limited to 15 by law). Similar ratings were created for the lighter-than-air branch of aviation, termed Military Aeronaut. Ironically, the change automatically reduced the ratings of all 24 existing Military Aviators because of a prerequisite of three years experience as a JMA before becoming eligible for MA. None re-acquired the rating (and its additional 25% increase in flight pay, called the "aviation increase") until 1917. By then the Army had in place a policy of awarding aviation-rated lieutenants and captains who flew "regularly and frequently" the rank, pay, and allowances of the next higher grade.[9]

World War I and Air Service revisionsEdit

USA - Aviator Wings WWI era

Junior Military Aviator badge, 1917-1919. Initially badges were embroidered and Junior Military Aviator and Reserve Military Aviator badges had only one wing to the wearer's left. At the end of October 1917 the two-wing badge was authorized for JMA and RMA to distinguish them from Observer, and a star added to denote the Military Aviator rating.

The Military Aviator badge was replaced on 22 June 1917 by authorization of a new embroidered "wings" badge, the first sketches of which are attributed to Arnold. An additional rating, Reserve Military Aviator, was created on 3 June 1917 for all pilots rated during World War I, with all ranks and grades being temporary.[n 7] The aviation increase (flight pay) included increases in pay of 25% for each of the higher JMA and MA ratings. An RMA rating for balloon pilots was also created,[10] as was the rating of Observers applicable to either branch, bringing the total number of aeronautical ratings to seven.[9][11]

After the creation by executive order in 1918 of the Army Air Service, a standard wings-and-shield design for the rating badge, still in use today, was created by Herbert Adams of the Federal Commission of Fine Arts and approved on 25 January 1919.[12] Army regulations regarding ratings underwent a major revision by the Director of Air Service on 16 October 1919. The RMA rating was officially changed to Airplane Pilot (although usage of the RMA terminology continued until 1920), all observers were termed Aerial Observer, and ratings of Enlisted Pilot, Dirigible Pilot, Aerial Gunner, and Aerial Bomber were created. Among the new ratings, a 50% aviation increase was authorized for the enlisted pilot and 25% for all the others. The new ratings, however, proved to be only a demobilization expedient and lasted less than nine months.[13][n 8]

In 1920, when the Air Service was made a statutory arm of the line, the differentials in flight pay ended, standardized at 50%. The policy of awarding rated officers a temporary advancement in grade was also terminated. To qualify for command of a unit, an officer was required by law to be rated. The eleven ratings were reduced to four: Airplane Pilot, Airplane Observer, Airship Pilot, and Balloon Observer.[n 9] Officers holding Reserve Military Aviator/Airplane Pilot, Junior Military Aviator, and Military Aviator ratings were considered qualified as Airplane Pilots, while those holding Military Aeronaut and Balloon Observer ratings were deemed qualified as Balloon Observers. Officers with the remaining two ratings re-qualified automatically.[14][n 10][15] In 1921 the Air Service authorized the wearing of 3.125-inch ratings badges made of oxidized silver in lieu of embroidered badges.[9]

File:AirshipPilot.jpg

In 1921 the Air Service also revised its pilot training program, adopting the "A Plan", which divided pilot ratings between Junior Airplane Pilot (completion of primary training, normally an enlisted rating) and Airplane Pilot (completion of advanced training).[16][n 11] The bulk of new pilots were acquired from the enlisted classification of "flying cadet", with achievement of a JAP rating making a cadet eligible for advanced pilot training and commissioning. However some older Air Service officers without flying experience, but requiring a rating to remain in the Air Service, acquired a JAP rating, including Chief of Air Service Maj. Gen. Mason Patrick.

In 1924 the Tenth Annual Report of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, submitted by President Calvin Coolidge to the Congress, reported:

"The Air Service has 845 officers with rating as airplane pilots, airplane observers, airship pilots, airship observers, or balloon observers. In addition about 51 enlisted men have the rating of airplane pilot, junior airplane pilot, or airship pilot."[17]

Air Corps and World War II changesEdit

In 1926, the new Air Corps discarded the A Plan in favor of the B Plan, which awarded only a single rating, Airplane Pilot, requiring completion of all phases of a year-long, three-school (Primary, Basic, and Advanced) flying training course.[18] The Airship School closed in 1928 for economic reasons, ending all increases and replacements in airship ratings. The Air Corps Act of 1926 mandated that 90% of all Air Corps officers be rated, and that for reasons of economy, by 1929 at least 20% of tactical pilots had to be enlisted men. However the latter requirement was so utterly impractical it was circumvented by the Air Corps with the tacit approval of the War Department. The Air Corps had only 38 rated enlisted men in 1930 (about 4% of all pilots), and nearly every enlisted graduate was being commissioned to decrease deficits in rated officers. Those remaining as enlisted men in the Regular Army held reserve officer commissions in the event of war.[19]

In 1936, Maj. Gen. Frank M. Andrews, commanding the GHQ Air Force, promulgated a policy requiring newly minted pilots to spend a year flying single-engined aircraft and accruing 750 logged flight hours as a prerequisite to becoming a bomber pilot. Seven years of military flying experience and 2,000 logged hours qualified a pilot as an "airplane commander" in the GHQAF. In 1937 the Army formalized the requirement, creating a new advanced rating of Military Airplane Pilot, setting 12 years as a rated pilot and 2,000 hours of flight time as the standard.[20] The rating of Airship Pilot was discontinued at the same time and that of Airship Observer incorporated into Balloon Observer, leaving the Air Corps with five ratings.[21][n 12]

Between November 1939 and March 1940 pilot ratings were revised to the permanent three-tier system with objective standards that exists today, with a total of eight ratings overall.[22][n 13] Graduation from Advanced Flying School was required to be rated a Pilot;[n 14] ten years service and 1,800 hours of military flight for Senior Pilot rating;[n 15] and either 15 years service with 3,000 hours, or 20 years service with 2,000 hours, to become a Command Pilot.[n 16] For both advanced ratings, hours as a pilot or navigator (a specialization then performed only by rated pilots) were calculated at 100%, but military flight hours in any other capacity were calculated at a 50% rate.[23][24] On the date that the Senior Pilot rating became effective, the Air Corps also divided the former Airplane Observer rating into that of Combat Observer and Technical Observer.[n 17]

NavigatorBadge-old

Navigator wings, 1942-1951

Navigator was recognized by the United States Army Air Forces as a rating and authorized its own badge on 4 September 1942, one of a number of new wartime ratings that included Bombardier, three classes of auxiliary pilot ratings, and enlisted aircrew ratings. Combat Observer was renamed Aircraft Observer. All of the wartime ratings except navigator were discontinued by the USAF on 26 July 1949,[12] with the badge design being changed in 1951 from that of a globe flanked by wings to that of the USAF shield flanked by wings. Beginning in 2011, the rating of navigator was retitled, replaced by the aeronautical rating of combat systems officer (CSO), with the same badge insignia as navigator. This title change places the CSO more in line with the Naval Flight Officers (NFO) of the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps. Although observer ratings were also discontinued by USAF in 1949, the Observer title was revived in 1981 when a rating was created for otherwise non-aeronautically rated USAF officers who completed NASA mission specialist astronaut training.

Flight Surgeons were rated and received the "aviation increase" between 1918 and 1920. The rating was discontinued in 1920, however, and flight surgeons as a military profession were neglected by the headquarters of the successive Army air arms until late in 1939.[25][26] In July 1940, the recommendations of a board of flight surgeons appointed by Gen. Arnold were adopted, standardizing ratings requirements as:

USAAF Flight Surgeon Wings

Flight Surgeon wings, Army Air Forces

  • graduation from a Class A medical school,
  • completion of a one-year rotational internship,
  • completion of the School of Aviation Medicine course,
  • one year's service in the AAF as an Aviation Medical Examiner, and
  • 50 hours of logged military flight.[27]

The Flight Surgeon rating received its own distinctive gold badge on 3 March 1942, which was changed to the standard oxidized silver wings in 1944 to avoid confusion with naval aviator badges.[28]

USAF rating requirementsEdit

Pilot ratingsEdit

Pilot Badge United States Air Force Pilot Badge

The USAF awards pilot ratings at three levels: Pilot, Senior Pilot, and Command Pilot, to active duty officers and to officers considered as "rated assets" in the Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard (i.e., the Air Reserve Components). Rating standards apply equally to both fixed-wing and helicopter pilots.

The following additional criteria are required to be rated as a USAF pilot:[29]

Rating Basic requirement Flight timeAlternative flight time
Command Pilot *15 years as rated pilot, and
*Permanent award of senior pilot rating, and
3000 total hours, or*2300 hours primary and instructor flight, or
*144 months Operational Flying Duty (OFDA)
Senior Pilot *7 years as rated pilot, and
*Permanent award of pilot rating, and
2000 total hours, or1300 hours primary and instructor flight
Pilot *Graduate of USAF pilot training program, or
*Graduate of other US military pilot training if ordered by USAF, or
*Graduate of other US military pilot training if equivalent to USAF program, or

*Graduate of helicopter pilot training conducted by another US military service
400 hours primary and instrument flight




400 hours in rotary flight time and instrument qualification

RPA Pilot ratingsEdit

RPA Pilot Badge United States Air Force Unmanned Aircraft Operator Badge

The USAF awards remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) pilot ratings at three levels: RPA Pilot, Senior RPA Pilot, and Command RPA Pilot, to active duty officers and to officers considered as "rated assets" in the Air Reserve Components.

The following additional criteria are required to be rated as a USAF remotely piloted aircraft pilot:

Rating Basic requirement Flight timeAlternative flight time
Command RPA Pilot *15 years as rated RPA pilot, and
*Permanent award of senior RPA pilot rating, and
3000 total hours, or*2300 hours primary and instructor flight, or
*144 months Operational Flying Duty (OFDA)
Senior RPA Pilot *7 years as rated RPA pilot, and
*Permanent award of RPA pilot rating, and
2000 total hours, or1300 hours primary and instructor flight
RPA Pilot *Graduate of USAF RPA pilot training program, or
*Graduate of other US military pilot training if equivalent to USAF program
400 hours primary and instrument flight

Combat Systems Officer ratingsEdit

Combat Systems Officer badge United States Air Force Navigator Observer Badge

The Combat Systems Officer (CSO) rating is awarded to individuals who entered the CSO Undergraduate Flying Training after 1 October 2004. The USAF awards combat systems operator ratings at three levels: Combat Systems Officer, Senior Combat Systems Officer, and Master Combat Systems Officer, for active duty officers and officers considered rated assets in the Air Reserve Components. The insignia is identical to USAF Navigator, but rated navigators who are not CSO rated are not eligible for award of advanced CSO ratings. The following additional criteria are required for rating as a USAF combat systems officer:

Rating Basic requirement Flight timeAlternative flight time
Master Combat Systems Officer *15 years as rated CSO, and
*Permanent award of senior CSO rating, and
3000 total hours, or*2300 hours primary and instructor time, or
*144 months OFDA
Senior Combat Systems Officer *7 years as rated CSO, and
*Permanent award of CSO rating, and
2000 total hours, or*1300 hours primary and instructor time, or
*72 months OFDA
Combat Systems Officer *Graduate of Combat Systems Officer Undergraduate Flying TrainingNo time required

Navigator ratingsEdit

Navigator Badge United States Air Force Navigator Observer Badge

The USAF awards navigator ratings at three levels: Navigator, Senior Navigator, and Master Navigator, for active duty officers and officers considered "rated assets" in the Air Reserve Components. After 2009 only Combat Systems Officers receive ratings formerly awarded to navigators, as the occupational field is being phased out. The following additional criteria are required for rating as a USAF navigator:

Rating Basic requirement Flight timeAlternative flight time
Master Navigator *15 years as rated navigator, and
*Permanent award of senior navigator rating, and
3000 total hours, or*2300 hours primary and instructor time, or
*144 months OFDA
Senior Navigator *7 years as rated navigator
*Permanent award of navigator rating
2000 total hours*1300 hours primary and instructor time, or
*72 months OFDA
Navigator *Graduate of USAF Undergraduate Navigator Training (UNT) / USAF-USN Interservice Undergraduate Navigator Training (IUNT) / USAF-USN Specialized Undergraduate Navigator Training (SUNT), or

*Graduate of USN/USMC Naval Flight Officer course, VT-86 (RIO, TN or OJN training pipelines)

*Graduate of USN Naval Flight Officer course, VT-29 (Advanced Navigation Training Course)
400 hours primary navigator timeNone


Reviewed by Aeronautical Rating Board and approved by Major Command

Air Battle Manager ratingsEdit

Air Battle Manager Badge USAF - Occupational Badge - Air Battle Manager

The USAF awards Air Battle Manager ratings at three levels: Air Battle Manager, Senior Air Battle Manager, and Master Air Battle Manager, for active duty officers and officers considered "rated assets" in the Air Reserve Components. The following additional criteria are required to be rated as a USAF air battle manager:

Rating Basic requirement Flight timeAlternative flight time
Master Air Battle Manager *15 years as rated ABM, and
*Permanent award of senior ABM rating, and
3000 total hours, or*2300 hours primary and instructor time, or
*144 months OFDA
Senior Air Battle Manager *7 years as rated ABM, and
*Permanent award of ABM rating, and
2000 total hours, or*1300 hours primary and instructor time, or
*72 months OFDA
Air Battle Manager *Graduate of E-3 Formal Training Unit course,[n 18] or
*Graduate of E-8 Formal Training Unit course, or
*Graduate of UABMT under new syllabus
No time required

Observer ratingsEdit

Observer Badge United States Air Force Navigator Observer Badge

The USAF awards observer ratings at three levels: Observer, Senior Observer, and Master Observer, for active duty officers and officers considered "rated assets" in the Air Reserve Components. The insignia is identical to USAF Navigator/CSO and is typically only awarded as an "observer" insignia with the Astronaut emblem to USAF officers who have completed training as NASA Mission Specialist Astronauts, have flown at least once in space in the Space Shuttle and/or served at the International Space Station, and are not otherwise rated as USAF pilots or navigators/CSOs. The following additional criteria are required to be rated as a USAF observer:

Rating Basic requirement Flight timeAlternative flight time
Master Observer *15 years as rated observer, and
*Permanent award of senior observer rating, and
3000 total hours, or*2300 hours primary and instructor time, or
*144 months OFDA
Senior Observer *7 years as rated observer, and
*Permanent award of observer rating. and
2000 total hours, or*1300 hours primary and instructor time, or
*72 months OFDA
Observer *Graduate of NASA Mission Specialist trainingNo time required

Flight Surgeon ratingsEdit

Flight Surgeon Badge United States Air Force Flight Surgeon Badge

The USAF awards flight surgeon ratings at three levels: Flight Surgeon, Senior Flight Surgeon, and Chief Flight Surgeon, for active duty officers and officers considered "rated assets" in the Air Reserve Components. The following additional criteria are required for rating as a USAF flight surgeon:

Rating Basic requirement Flight timeAlternative flight time
Chief Flight Surgeon *15 years rated service as flight surgeon, and
*Permanent award of senior flight service rating, and
*1 year current active service as flight surgeon, and
750 logged hours, or144 months OFDA
Senior Flight Surgeon *7 years rated service as flight surgeon, and
*Permanent award of flight surgeon rating. and
*1 year current active service as flight surgeon, and
350 logged hours, or72 months OFDA
Flight Surgeon *Graduate of Aerospace Medicine Primary Course, and
*Unrestricted medical license, and
*Awarded Air Force Specialty Code 48XX
No time required

Pilot-PhysiciansEdit

Flight surgeons may also perform duties as Pilot-Physicians (Air Force Specialty Code 48VX). The purpose of pilot-physicians is to provide "integrated operational and aerospace medicine guidance" in the research, development, testing, and evaluation of Air Force systems and missions to realize the greatest effectiveness and cost savings.

Pilot-physicians were previously assigned only to an operational flying squadron in their respective aircraft, with their main assignment as a pilot, but also with clinical duties seeing patients, usually the flight medicine clinic, depending on the pilot-physician's medical specialty. On 21 April 2011 the Pilot-Physician Program (PPP) was completely revised to make "the most of the special resources of Air Force officers who are simultaneously qualified both as pilots and flight surgeons," with a senior pilot-physician selected by the Air Force Surgeon General to be Program Director, and assignment of designated command, staff, research, training, and education billets as well as duty in operational units. A P48VX specialty code is assigned to those on aeronautical orders as a pilot-physician and assigned to one of these designated PPP billets. Pilot-Physicians are entitled to conditional flight pay (ACIP), that is, only if assigned to an active flying position and flying a prescribed number of hours monthly.

In addition to being a rated pilot and a rated flight surgeon, a pilot-physician must have completed at least three years of operational flying and one year as an operational flight surgeon, with a provision for assigning applicants without flight surgeon operational experience to a base where they would likely become a "first assignment pilot-physician".[30] The revised program allows flight surgeons access to undergraduate pilot training and remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) pilot training (one slot per year); allows participation of flight surgeons with experience as navigators, electronic warfare officers, RPA sensor operators, and flight test engineers as navigator-physicians or flight test-physicians; and authorizes pilot-physicians to compete for assignment to USAF Test Pilot School.[31]

Pilot-physicians are defined by four core competencies to achieve program objectives:

  • Providing expert guidance through the synthesis of operational and medical experience,
  • Conducting research by applying operational insights to studies; basic and applied science; relevant research, development, test & evaluation (RDT&E); and operational test & evaluation (OT&E),
  • Teaching aircrew, senior Air Force leaders, and medical personnel on subjects of particular expertise, and
  • Conducting analysis to provide recommendations for operational systems, environments, and mishaps; and solutions to human performance problems.[32]

Pilot-physicians are eligible for advanced ratings as both flight surgeons and pilots. They may apply toward advanced pilot ratings any USAF pilot years of aviation service, months of operational flying duty, and total flying hours accrued before achieving flight surgeon status. After attaining status as a pilot-physician, all hours flown as a pilot, and months of operational flying duty credit accrued as a pilot, are "dual-credited" toward both advanced pilot and flight surgeon ratings as long as the officer is on aeronautical orders as an active pilot-physician.[33]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

Footnotes
  1. The standard by which flight status has been defined in law, executive orders, and regulations since 1913.
  2. Navigator remains a rated category, but is in the process of being phased out in favor of the more comprehensive and versatile CSO category. Kreisher, Otto. "Versatile, Ready, and Rated". AIR FORCE Magazine, August 2007 (vol. 90, no. 8). Accessed December 11, 2009.
  3. Added 25 September 2007. Under a program that began in the fall of 2004 to replace the "Joint Specialized Undergraduate Navigator Training" course, portions of the previous navigator and electronic warfare officer training courses were combined into a curriculum with the objective of developing an aviator with cross-flow capability between the two positions on combat aircraft. The curriculum includes a wider range of topics, with an increased emphasis on warfighting, to develop leadership, decision-making and mission management skills. Navigators and CSOs wear identical badges.
  4. Added 13 December 2010.
  5. Commander AFRC presents to USAF officers who complete RPA Formal Training Unit in conjunction with Undergraduate RPA Training at March Air Reserve Base, California.
  6. One (1st Lt. J. D. Park) was killed in an accident before G.O. 39 was issued, and two (1st Lts. E.L. Ellington and H.M. Kelly) were killed together in the Philippines before theirs were delivered.
  7. Candidates for Reserve Military Aviator had to pass a medical examination to become an aviation cadet at a civilian flying school, then a preliminary flying test. Nearly all aviation cadets receiving the rating were commissioned as first lieutenants, Signal Officers Reserve Corps, awarded upon successful completion of the "Reserve Military Aviator" test, supervised by an Aviation Section officer or agent. (Only those few rated officers not assigned in orders to the "Aviation Section, Signal Reserve for regular and frequent flights" were commissioned as second lieutenants.) The test in seven parts included a takeoff and climb in a constricted area, gliding and spinning, making a deadstick landing, landing over an obstacle, flying a triangular course by compass, flying a 30-mile cross-country flight by map, and completing a 45-minute endurance flight at 4,000 feet altitude. (Aviation and Aeronautical Engineering, May 15, 1917, Vol. II, No. 8, p. 355.)
  8. Two non-flying ratings for aircraft mechanics, "Aviation Mechanician" and "Balloon Mechanician", also received a 50% increase if engaged in flying duty.
  9. The U.S. Naval Air Service and the U.S. Aerial Mail Service also had four aviation ratings.
  10. Except for the earliest Army aviators (less than one in ten pilots), all Air Service pilots already held this rating.
  11. Both phases of training were six months in length.
  12. These five ratings were: Military Airplane Pilot, Airplane Pilot, Airplane Observer, Balloon Pilot, and Balloon Observer.
  13. AR 600-35 (paragraph 42: "Badge, Aviation") was revised to list the eight rating categories, including a new Senior Balloon Pilot rating, and describe their badges.
  14. The rating of Pilot was authorized 21 November 1939.
  15. The rating of Senior Pilot was authorized 20 February 1940.
  16. The rating of Command Pilot was authorized 23 March 1940.
  17. Combat Observer and Technical Observer ratings became effective 23 February 1940.
  18. FTU is an umbrella term for both current Undergraduate ABM Training (UABMT) and previous Programmed Flying Training (PFT) in a flying unit
Citations
  1. Air Force Instruction (AFI) 11-402, Paragraph 2.2.2; 13 December 2010, superseding AFI 11-402 25 September 2007.
  2. AFI 11-402. Paragraph 2.2 defines the categories of aeronautical ratings and Paragraph 2.4 the authority making the award.
  3. Added 1 October 1999. Wilder, Harlan, et al. editors. Aviation Career Incentive Pay (ACIP). U.S. Air Force Judge Advocate General's Department. http://books.google.com/books?id=dPLkAKjtJYkC&pg=PT635&lpg=PT635&dq=1+October+1999+%22Air+Battle+Manager%22&source=bl&ots=zSGX7R_33c&sig=gew3kSEeEuhpAqCMeH9L_DkFyh8&hl=en&ei=8CclS4OLLM7VlAfZ1Z31CQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CCcQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=1%20October%201999%20%22Air%20Battle%20Manager%22&f=false. Retrieved 13 December 2009. 
  4. Chicago Daily news almanac and year-book for 1918, p. 423..
  5. Hennessy, Juliette A. (1958). USAF Historical Study No. 98: The United States Army Air Arm, April 1861 to April 1917, USAF Historical Division, p.58.
  6. John T. Correll, "The First of the Force", AIR FORCE Magazine, August 2007, p. 50.
  7. Hennessy 1958, p. 227 Appendix 8.
  8. Hennessy 1958, p. 59.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Maurer Maurer (1987). Aviation in the U.S. Army, 1919-1939, Office of Air Force History, Washington, D.C. ISBN 1-4102-1391-9, p. 46.
  10. According to the 1920 Aircraft Year Book, p. 278, no one was ever rated a Reserve Military Aeronaut.
  11. Aviation Medicine in the A.E.F., Office of the Director of Air Service, February 1920, U.S. Government Printing Office, pp. 309-310. ODAS General Orders No. 45, 29 Sept 1919.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Rottman, Gordon L. (2002). U.S. Army Air Forces, Volume Two, Osprey Publishing, Botley, Oxford, UK. ISBN 1-85532-339-7, p. 12.
  13. Manufacturers Aircraft Association, Inc. (1920). Aircraft Year Book, Doubleday, Page, and Company. New York, pp. 276-278
  14. "Flying Status of Air Service Officers". 1920. http://books.google.com/books?id=aMY7AAAAMAAJ&pg=RA6-PA31&lpg=RA6-PA31&dq=rating+%22regular+and+frequent+flights%22&source=bl&ots=bRkFMPxOBS&sig=2XQ2hsVcGQsv0R9Uzdw6AsyzSOM&hl=en&ei=TUTCTPntCMfGnAfbqLXaCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CCYQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=rating%20%22regular%20and%20frequent%20flights%22&f=false. Retrieved 22 Oct 2010. . Paragraph 2 (a) Section IV, General Orders No. 49, War Department 1920
  15. Maurer 1987, p. 47.
  16. Hussey, Anne, and Browning, Dr. Robert (2000). "Flying Training at Kelly, 1917-1943", A History of Military Aviation in San Antonio, USAF Air Education and Training Command, p. 18
  17. "The Army Air Service". Tenth Annual Report of the National Advisory Committee of Aeronautics. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1925. http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19930091252_1993091252.pdf. Retrieved 19 Oct 2010. , p. 53.
  18. Hussey and Browning 2000, p. 21
  19. Maurer 1987, pp. 49, 204–208
  20. Maurer 1987, p. 379. Air Corps Circular 50-10 13 June 1937
  21. Maurer 1987, p. 373
  22. War Department Circular 31, 23 March 1940
  23. Rottman 2002, p. 12
  24. Maurer 1987, p. 380.
  25. Maurer 1987, p. 67
  26. Jones, David R. (2003). Flight Surgeon Support to United States Air Force Fliers in Combat, USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks City-Base, Texas. P. 11-19.
  27. LeRoy, Dr. George V. (1955). "The Medical Service of the USAAF", The Army Air Forces in World War II; Volume Seven: Services Around the World, University of Chicago.
  28. Rottman 2002, p. 15
  29. AFI 11-402 Table 2.1. This table defines requirements for all seven categories of ratings.
  30. AFI 11-405 Pilot-Physician Program, Paragraph 4.1
  31. AFI 11-404 Paragraphs 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, and 7.3
  32. AFI 11-402, Paragraph 1.2
  33. AFI 11-402, Paragraph 2.7

ReferencesEdit


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