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USS Colorado (1856)
USS Colorado, 1871
USS Colorado
Career Naval jack of the United States (1865–1867) US flag 34 stars.svg
Name: USS Colorado
Builder: Norfolk Navy Yard
Laid down: 1856
Launched: 19 June 1856
Sponsored by: Ms. N. S. Dornin
Commissioned: 13 March 1858
Decommissioned: 8 June 1876
Fate: Sold, 18 February 1885
General characteristics
Class & type: Colorado
Type: Screw frigate
Displacement: 3,425 long tons (3,480 t)
Length: 263 ft 8 in (80.37 m)
Beam: 52 ft 6 in (16.00 m)
Draft: 22 ft 1 in (6.73 m)
Propulsion: Steam engine
Sail plan: Three masts
Speed: 9 kn (10 mph; 17 km/h)
Complement: 674 officers and men[1]
Armament: 2 × 10 in (250 mm) guns, 28 × 9 in (230 mm) guns, 14 × 8 in (200 mm) guns
General characteristics 1864
Armament: • 1 × 150 pdr rifle
• 1 × 11 in (280 mm) smoothbore guns
• 46 × 9 in (230 mm) smoothbore guns
• 4 × 12 pdr howitzers [1]
General characteristics 1871
Armament: • 2 × 100 pdr rifle
• 1 × 11 in (280 mm) smoothbore guns
• 42 × 9 in (230 mm) smoothbore guns
• 2 × 20 pdr howitzers
• 6 × 12 pdr howitzers [1]

The first USS Colorado — a 3,400 long tons (3,500 t)-class, three-masted[2] steam screw frigate — was launched on 19 June 1856 by the Norfolk Navy Yard. It was sponsored by Ms. N. S. Dornin, and commissioned on 13 March 1858, Captain W. H. Gardner in command.

Pre-Civil WarEdit

Putting to sea from Boston on 12 May 1858, Colorado cruised in Cuban waters deterring the practice of search by British cruisers until 6 August, when she returned to Boston and was placed in ordinary until 1861.

Civil WarEdit

Colorado was recommissioned on 3 June 1861 and sailed from Boston on 18 June to join the Union Navy's Gulf Blockading Squadron, under the task force command of Commodore William Marvine's flagship for the Blockade.[2] On 14 September, an expedition under Lieutenant J. H. Russell from Colorado cut out the schooner Judah, believed to be preparing for service as a privateer and spiked one gun of a battery at the Pensacola Navy Yard, losing three men in the raid. On 11 December, another expedition was sent to Pilot Town and succeeded in capturing a small schooner and two men. Colorado assisted in the capture of the steamer Calhoun (or Cuba) on 23 January 1862 off South West Pass at the mouth of the Mississippi River, and a week later engaged four Confederate steamers. She returned to Boston on 21 June and was decommissioned from 28 June-10 November.

Colorado sailed from Portsmouth, New Hampshire on 9 December to rejoin the blockading force off Mobile, Alabama on 13 March 1863. She shared in the capture of the schooner Hunter on 17 May. Returning to Portsmouth Navy Yard on 4 February 1864, she was again placed out of commission from 18 February-1 September.

Clearing Portsmouth on 6 October, she joined the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron and cruised off the coast of North Carolina until 26 January 1865. Colorado participated in the bombardment and capture of Fort Fisher from 13–15 January. She was struck six times by enemy fire which killed one man and wounded two.

PrizesEdit

Date[1] Prize Name[1] Gross Proceeds Costs and Expenses Amount for Distribution Where Adjudicated Sent to 4th Auditor for Distribution Vessels Entitled to Share
13 Sep 1861 Judith destroyed [1]
6 May 1862 Lewis Whitmore

Post-Civil WarEdit

Council of War USS Colorado June 1871

A posed photograph of U.S. Navy officers holding a council of war aboard Colorado off Korea in June 1871 prior to the Korean Expedition. The ship's commanding officer, Captain George H. Cooper, is seated at center, and the Asiatic Squadron's commander, Rear Admiral John Rodgers, leans over the table at right.

European SquadronEdit

From 3 February-25 May 1865, Colorado was again out of commission at New York Navy Yard. Ordered to the European Squadron as flagship, she sailed on 11 June and cruised off England, Portugal, and Spain, and in the Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas until she departed Cherbourg on 23 July 1867 for New York where she was placed in ordinary from 7 September 1867 – 15 February 1870.

Asiatic SquadronEdit

Colorado was flagship of the Asiatic Squadron. America had emerged from the Civil War and its foreign policy at the time was to rival the European powers (France, Russia and Britain) in their efforts to establish trade and spheres of influence in China, Japan and Korea.

Colorado cruised on the Asiatic Station from 9 April 1870 – 15 March 1873. As flagship for Rear Admiral John Rodgers' squadron, she carried the U.S. Minister (to China and Korea) on a diplomatic mission in April 1871.

On 1 June 1871, an unprovoked attack was made on two ships of the squadron by shore batteries from two Korean forts on the Salee River. When no explanation was offered, a punitive expedition known as the Sinmiyangyo was mounted that destroyed the forts and inflicted heavy casualties on the Koreans.

Clearing Hong Kong on 21 November 1872, Colorado sailed by way of Singapore and Cape Town for New York, arriving on 11 March 1873.

North Atlantic SquadronEdit

Colorado sailed from New York on 12 December to cruise the North Atlantic Station, and became flagship of the North Atlantic Squadron on 27 August 1874.

DecommissionedEdit

Returning to New York on 30 May 1876, Colorado was placed out of commission on 8 June. From 1876-1884, she was used as a Receiving Ship at New York Navy Yard. She was sold on 14 February 1885 to a private company; and broken up for salvage material and burned for her copper fastenings.[2]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Silverstone, Warships, p. 29.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 USS Colorado Home Page

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