|USS Skate (SSN-578)|
|Ordered:||18 July 1955|
|Laid down:||21 July 1955|
|Launched:||16 May 1957|
|Commissioned:||23 December 1957|
|Decommissioned:||12 September 1986|
|Struck:||30 October 1986|
|Fate:||Submarine recycling program|
|Class & type:||Skate-class submarine|
2,550 long tons (2,590 t) surfaced|
2,848 long tons (2,894 t) submerged
|Length:||267 ft 7 in (81.56 m)|
|Beam:||25 ft (7.6 m)|
15.5 knots (17.8 mph; 28.7 km/h) surfaced|
18 kn (21 mph; 33 km/h) submerged
|Complement:||8 officers and 76 men|
|Armament:||• 8 × 21 in (530 mm) torpedo tubes (6 forward, 2 aft)|
USS Skate (SSN-578), the third submarine of the United States Navy named for the skate, a type of ray, was the lead ship of the Skate class of nuclear submarines. She was the third nuclear submarine commissioned, the first to make a completely submerged trans-Atlantic crossing, and the second submarine to reach the North Pole and the first to surface there.
The contract to build her was awarded to the Electric Boat division of General Dynamics on 18 July 1955, and her keel was laid in Groton, Connecticut on 21 July 1955. She was launched on 16 May 1957 sponsored by Mrs. Lewis L. Strauss, and commissioned on 23 December 1957 with Commander James F. Calvert in command.
Skate conducted shakedown training out of New London, Connecticut until 29 January 1958, when she cruised to the Bermuda operating area, then returned to her home port on 8 February. Sixteen days later, the nuclear powered submarine set a course for the Isle of Portland, England. Before returning home, she had also visited ports in France and the Netherlands.
On 30 July, Skate steamed to the Arctic where she operated under the ice for 10 days. During this time, she surfaced nine times through the ice, navigated over 2,400 miles (3,900 km) under it, and on 11 August, 9:47 pm EDT  (the week after USS Nautilus) became the second sea ship to reach the North Pole, and first to surface there, earning the Navy Unit Commendation award for "... braving the hazards of the polar ice pack...." Despite numerous surfacings through the icepack, the surfacing at the North Pole was notable due to the lack of ice around the pole. On 23 August, she steamed into Bergen, Norway. The submarine made port calls in the Netherlands, Belgium, and France before returning to New London on 25 September 1958.
In the following months, Skate, as the first ship of her class, conducted various tests in the vicinity of her home port. In early March 1959, she again headed for the Arctic to pioneer operations during the period of extreme cold and maximum ice thickness. The submarine steamed 3,900 miles (6,300 km) under pack ice while surfacing through it ten times. On 17 March, she surfaced at the North Pole to commit the ashes of the famed explorer Sir Hubert Wilkins to the Arctic waste. When the submarine returned to port, she was awarded a bronze star in lieu of a second Navy Unit Commendation for demonstrating "... for the first time the ability of submarines to operate in and under the Arctic ice in the dead of winter...." In the fall of 1959 and in 1960, Skate participated in exercises designed to strengthen American antisubmarine defenses.
Skate returned to General Dynamics in January 1961 for a regular overhaul and to have her reactor refueled for the first time. She put to sea in August and, for the next 11 months, conducted exercises to increase the operational readiness of her crew.
On 7 July 1962, Skate again set course towards the North Pole. Five days later, USS Seadragon (SSN-584), did likewise from Pearl Harbor. The two submarines made their rendezvous on 31 July. After meeting, they operated together for over a week. Both submarines surfaced at the North Pole on 2 August and official greetings and insignia of Submarine Force Atlantic Fleet and Submarine Force Pacific Fleet were exchanged.
Skate returned to New London and performed fleet and local operations for the next several years. She entered the Norfolk Naval Shipyard on 28 April 1965, the first nuclear submarine overhauled there, for nuclear refueling and installation of the SUBSAFE package. Skate was the first submarine to finish this major conversion program, which was instituted after the loss of USS Thresher (SSN-593) in 1963. The process was not completed until September 1967.
After sea trials and a shakedown cruise in the Caribbean, the submarine returned to New London and participated in exercises involved in the development of new undersea tactics and equipment.
In October 1968, Skate was deployed to the Mediterranean where she operated with the Sixth Fleet for two months. The polar veteran operated under the Arctic ice again in March and April 1969, in October 1970, and in February 1971 . The remainder of her at sea time was spent in various Atlantic Fleet and NATO exercises. In July 1971, she began her third regular overhaul at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard and did not return to New London until 17 November 1973. In August 1974, Skate operated as a unit of the Atlantic Fleet.
In late 1977, Skate transferred to Pearl Harbor, where she joined the other three Skate class submarines as a member of Submarine Squadron 7.
Skate received two Navy Unit Commendations and three Meritorious Unit Commendations during her career. The first Navy Unit Commendation was for the period 9–12 August 1958 and the second for the period 4 March through 6 April 1959. The Meritorious Unit Commendations were for the periods 24 March through 15 April 1969, 12 October through 18 November 1970 and 26 February through 9 March 1971. (Source – US Navy Unit Awards Webpage.)
- Skate appears in Tom Clancy's 1993 novel Without Remorse.
- Skate appears in the 1961 film, Parrish as the submarine upon which the title character is stationed.
- ↑ USS Skate (SSN 578)
- ↑ Steel Boats, Iron Men: History of the U.S. Submarine Force – Turner Publishing Company Staff – Google Boeken. Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=1T0NbffwteoC&pg=PA71#v=onepage&q&f=true. Retrieved 17 October 2012.
- ↑ http://www.navalhistory.org/2011/08/11/uss-skate-ssn-578-becomes-the-first-submarine-to-surface-at-the-north-pole
- ↑ "Afterwards: USS Skate surfacing at the North Pole, March 17, 1959. Wilkins 35-5-1.". Ohio State University Libraries Exhibition Under the North Pole. http://library.osu.edu/projects/under-the-north-pole/afterwards.html.
- This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here.
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