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The V-12 Navy College Training Program was designed to supplement the force of commissioned officers in the United States Navy during World War II. Between July 1, 1943, and June 30, 1946, more than 125,000 men were enrolled in the V-12 program in 131 colleges and universities in the United States. V-12 was similar to the Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP) which ran from 1942 to 1944 with a goal of providing more than 200,000 Army officers.

Richard Barrett Lowe, future Governor of Guam and American Samoa, was one of the early commanding officers.[1]

History[]

The purpose of the V-12 program was to grant bachelor's degrees to future officers drawn from both the U.S. Navy and the Marine Corps. Once they completed their baccalaureate program, the next step toward obtaining a Navy commission was to attend a U.S. Naval Reserve Midshipmen's School where the future officer was required to complete the V-7 program, a short course of four months, including one month spent in indoctrination school. Graduates from the midshipmen schools were commissioned as ensigns in the U.S. Naval Reserve and the majority entered into active duty with the U.S. fleet.[2]

Graduates in the V-12 Program from the Marine Corps reported directly to boot camp and were later enrolled in a three-month Officer Candidate Course. Once they completed the training, participants received their commission as Marine Corps second lieutenants.[3]

Program inception[]

When the United States entered the Second World War in the early 1940s, American colleges and universities suffered huge enrollment declines because men who would have normally gone to college were either drafted or volunteered for service. As a result, some colleges worried they would have to close their doors. After the V-12 Program was established on July 1, 1943, public and private colleges enrolled more than 100,000 men in the V-12 program which reversed the trend of declining college enrollment.[3] The V-12 Program, offered by the federal government under the direction of the U.S. Navy, paid tuition to participating colleges and universities for college courses that were taught to qualified candidates. The list included naval enlisted personnel who were recommended by their commanding officers, U.S. Navy and Marine Corps ROTC members and high school seniors who passed a qualifying exam.[3]

Captain Arthur S. Adams from the Training Division of the Bureau of Naval Personnel, was the officer-in-charge of the Navy College Training Program, V-12.[3]

Individuals who were accepted in the program were paid $50 per month and were required to wear Navy uniforms. The candidates also were subjected to rigorous physical training.[3]

Depending on students' past college curriculum, the candidates were enrolled in three school terms, or semesters, which lasted four months each. After the student successfully completed the V-12 Program, cadets in the Navy Reserve spent four months at a U.S. Naval Reserve Midshipmen's School while those from the Marine Corps reported to boot camp and after successful completion, they enrolled in a three-month Officer Candidate Course at Quantico, Virginia. Once they completed the training, participants received their commission as either Navy ensign or Marine Corps second lieutenants.[3]

Coordination with colleges and universities[]

Gentlemen, we are about to embark on an education program that will have important effects on American colleges, on the Navy, and most important of all, on the lives of thousands of this nation's finest young men. We must educate and train these men well so that they may serve their country with distinction, both in war and in peace. Vice Admiral Randall Jacobs, May 14, 1943[3]

The primary purpose of the program was to "give prospective Naval officers the benefits of a college education in those areas most needed by the Navy." The Navy did not want to interrupt the "normal pattern of college life," but instead, the goal was for the participants to complete a degree in their field of study; while supplementing their course work with Navy classes, for which the colleges awarded regular academic credits.[3]

The Navy's plan was to contract not only classroom, mess hall and dormitory space for a "stipulated amount of instruction," but also plans were made to make use of each campuses instructors and administration; a much needed infrastructure that was already in place. The students were expected to "have the benefits of faculty counseling, of extracurricular activities -- in short, the best undergraduate education the colleges can offer."[3]

Vice Admiral Randall Jacobs, USN, the Chief of Naval Personnel announced plans for the joint venture between the Navy and the colleges and universities during a national conference which was held at Columbia University on May 14 and 15, 1943. Administrators from 131 colleges and universities under contract with the Navy attended the conference along with Naval officers from the Bureau, who were designated as the administrators of the V-12 Program.[3]

The colleges and universities were "expected to keep academic standards high" and were ultimately placed in charge of the implementation, which was accomplished in six months. Captain Adams stated that the Navy had no intent of "taking over the colleges," but instead, the Navy wanted to take "full advantage" of each institution's academic resources and to make use of the experience and knowledge of the college administrators. This included all details of the program such as the length of the college day, scheduling of exercises, meals, recreation, textbooks and class time.[3]

Colleges and universities[]

During the advent of World War II, the U.S. Navy turned to liberal arts colleges to provide a basic education for their recruits.[4]

V-12 Line units[]

  • Alma College[5]
  • Arkansas A & M College[6]
  • Arizona State Teachers College[7]
  • Baldwin-Wallace College[8]
  • Bates College[9]
  • Berea College[10]
  • Bethany College (Kansas)[5]
  • Bethany College (West Virginia)[11]
  • Bloomsburg University[12]
  • Bowling Green State University[13]
  • Brown University[3]
  • Bucknell University[14]
  • California Institute of Technology[15]
  • Carroll College[16]
  • Carson-Newman College[17]
  • Case Institute of Applied Science[18]
  • Central College
  • Central Michigan University[19]
  • Central Missouri State Teachers College[20]
  • Colgate University[21]
  • College of the Holy Cross[22]
  • College of St. Thomas[23]
  • College of the Pacific
  • Colorado College[3]
  • Columbia University[24]
  • Cornell University[25]
  • Dartmouth College[26]
  • Denison University[27]
  • DePauw University[28]
  • Dickinson State Teachers College[29]
  • Doane College[3]
  • Drew University[30]
  • Duke University[31]
  • Emory & Henry College[32]
  • Emory University[33]
  • Franklin and Marshall College[34]
  • Georgia Institute of Technology[35]
  • Gonzaga University[36]
  • Gustavus Adolphus College[37]
  • Hampden-Sydney College[38]
  • Harvard University[39]
  • Hobart College[11]
  • Howard College[40]
  • Iowa State College[5]
  • Illinois Institute of Technology[41]
  • Illinois State Normal University[42]
  • $3
  • John Carroll College[43]
  • Kansas State Teachers College[5]
  • Lawrence College[44]
  • $3[40]
  • Marquette University[45]
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology[46]
  • Mercer University[47]
  • Miami University[5]
  • Middlebury College[3]
  • Milligan College[48]
  • Millsaps College[49]
  • Mississippi College[40]
  • Missouri Valley College[20]
  • Montana School of Mines[50]
  • Mount Saint Mary's College[51]
  • Muhlenberg College[52]
  • Murray State Teacher's College[5]
  • Nebraska State Teachers College[53]
  • Newberry College[54]
  • North Dakota State School of Science[55]
  • North Texas Agricultural College[56]
  • Northwest Missouri State Teachers College[57]
  • Northwestern University[58]
  • Oberlin College[5]
  • Occidental College[59]
  • Ohio Wesleyan University[5]
  • Park College[60]
  • Pennsylvania State University[61]
  • Princeton University[62]
  • Purdue University[63]
  • Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute[64]
  • Rice Institute[40]
  • Saint Ambrose College[65]
  • St. Lawrence University[66]
  • St. Mary's College[67]
  • Southeast Missouri State Teachers College[20]
  • Southern Methodist University[40]
  • Southwestern Louisiana Institute[68]
  • Southwestern University[69]
  • Stevens Institute of Technology[70]
  • Swarthmore College[71]
  • Texas Christian University[40]
  • Trinity College[5]
  • Tufts College[72]
  • Tulane University[73]
  • Union College[74]
  • University of California, Berkeley[75]
  • University of California, Los Angeles[76]
  • University of Chicago[77]
  • University of Colorado[78]
  • University of Dubuque[5]
  • University of Idaho - Southern Branch[79]
  • University of Illinois[3]
  • University of Kansas[80]
  • University of Louisville[81]
  • University of Miami[82]
  • University of Michigan[83]
  • University of Minnesota[84]
  • University of New Mexico[11]
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill[85]
  • University of Notre Dame[3]
  • University of Oklahoma[40]
  • University of Pennsylvania[86]
  • University of Redlands[87]
  • University of Richmond[88]
  • University of Rochester[89]
  • University of South Carolina[90]
  • University of South Dakota[5]
  • University of Southern California[91]
  • University of the South[40]
  • University of Texas at Austin[40]
  • University of Utah[92]
  • University of Virginia[47]
  • University of Washington[93]
  • University of Wisconsin[94]
  • Ursinus College[52]
  • Villanova College[95]
  • Wabash College[96]
  • Washburn Municipal University[97]
  • Webb Institute of Naval Architecture[98]
  • Wesleyan University[99]
  • West Virginia University[5]
  • Western Michigan College[5]
  • Westminster College[20]
  • Whitman College[100][101]
  • Willamette University[102]
  • Williams College[4]
  • Worcester Polytechnic Institute[103]
  • Yale University[104]

V-12 Medical units[]

  • Albany Medical College[98]
  • Baylor University[40]
  • Boston University School of Medicine[105]
  • Cornell University Medical College[25]
  • College of Medical Evangelists[5]
  • Creighton University College of Medicine[106]
  • Duke University School of Medicine[31]
  • Emory University School of Medicine[33]
  • George Washington University Medical School[77]
  • Georgetown University School of Medicine[77]
  • Hahnemann Medical College[52]
  • Indiana University School of Medicine, Bloomington[107]
  • Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis[107]
  • Jefferson Medical College[52]
  • Johns Hopkins School of Medicine[108]
  • Long Island College of Medicine[98]
  • Louisiana State University[40]
  • Loyola University - Stritch School of Medicine[40]
  • Medical College of South Carolina[5]
  • Medical College of Virginia[5]
  • Marquette University School of Medicine[45]
  • New York Medical College[98]
  • North Pacific College of Oregon[5]
  • Northwestern University School of Medicine[77]
  • NYU College of Medicine[109]
  • Ohio State University College of Dentistry[5]
  • Saint Louis University School of Medicine[20]
  • Southwestern Medical Foundation[5]
  • Southwestern University[69]
  • Stanford University School of Medicine[110]
  • Syracuse University College of Medicine[98]
  • Temple University School of Medicine[52]
  • Tulane University School of Medicine[73]
  • University of Alabama School of Medicine[111]
  • University of Arkansas College of Medicine[40]
  • University of Buffalo School of Medicine[98]
  • University of Chicago School of Medicine[77]
  • University of Cincinnati College of Medicine[77]
  • University of Georgia School of Medicine[5]
  • University of Illinois College of Medicine[3]
  • University of Kansas School of Medicine[5]
  • University of Louisville School of Medicine[81]
  • University of Maryland School of Medicine[112]
  • University of Michigan Medical College[83]
  • University of Mississippi School of Medicine[40]
  • University of Missouri, School of Basic Medical Science[20]
  • University of Nebraska College of Medicine[5]
  • University of North Carolina School of Medicine[85]
  • North Dakota State School of Science[55]
  • University of Oklahoma College of Medicine[40]
  • University of Oregon Medical School[5]
  • University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine[52]
  • University of Tennessee College of Medicine[40]
  • University of Utah College of Medicine[92]
  • University of Vermont College of Medicine[5]
  • Vanderbilt University School of Medicine[40]
  • Wake Forest College - Bowman Gray School of Medicine[5]
  • Wayne State University School of Medicine[5]
  • Washington University School of Medicine[20]
  • Yale University School of Medicine[5]

V-12 Dental units[]

  • Baylor University[40]
  • College of Physicians and Surgeons (San Francisco)[110]
  • Creighton University College of Dentistry[106]
  • Emory University School of Medicine[33]
  • Indiana University School of Dentistry[107]
  • Loyola University - Stritch School of Medicine[40]
  • North Pacific College of Oregon - School of Dentistry[5]
  • Marquette University School of Dentistry[45]
  • Saint Louis University School of Dentistry[20]
  • University of Buffalo School of Dentistry[98]
  • University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry[5]
  • University of Illinois College of Dentistry[3]
  • University of Louisville School of Dentistry[81]
  • University of Maryland School of Medicine[112]
  • University of Minnesota Medical School[84]
  • University of Missouri–Kansas City School of Dentistry[20]
  • University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine[52]
  • University of Tennessee College of Medicine[40]
  • University of Texas at Houston[40]
  • Washington University School of Dental Medicine[20]

V-12 Theological units[]

  • Andover Newton Theological School[105]
  • Berkeley Baptist Divinity School[75][110]
  • Chicago Theological Seminary[77]
  • Colgate Rochester Divinity School[98]
  • Columbia Theological Seminary[98]
  • Dubuque Theological Seminary[5]
  • Episcopal Theological School[105]
  • Garrett Biblical Institute[77]
  • Hartford Theological School[5]
  • Harvard Divinity School[105]
  • Lancaster Theological Seminary[52]
  • Luther Theological Seminary[23]
  • McCormick Theological Seminary[77]
  • Oberlin Graduate School of Theology[5]
  • Pittsburgh-Xenia Theological Seminary[52]
  • Southern Methodist University[40]
  • Texas Christian University[40]
  • University of Chicago Divinity School[77]
  • Vanderbilt University[40]

Notable V-12 veterans[]

Alfred J. Eggers served as NASA's Assistant Administrator for Policy from January 1968 through March 1971. After that he accepted a position as Assistant Director for Research Applications at the National Science Foundation. Dr. Eggers came to the NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) Ames Aeronautical Laboratory in 1944 from the Navy's V-12 college program.

  • George Allen, football coach, (Alma College & Marquette University)
  • Howard Baker, U.S. Senator from Tennessee (University of the South & Tulane University)
  • Angelo Bertelli, Notre Dame Football star and Heisman Trophy Winner
  • John Robert Beyster, founder, SAIC, Foundation for Enterprise Development, and Beyster Institute
  • Ray Bishop, Los Angeles Pierce College football coach
  • Harry Bonk, played college football as a fullback for the University of Maryland from 1945 to 1948, and Dartmouth College and Bucknell University in 1944
  • Frederick C. Branch, first African American United States Marine Corps officer (Purdue University)
  • M. Scott Carpenter, Project Mercury astronaut (Colorado College & Saint Mary's College of California).
  • Earl H. Carroll, United States federal judge in senior status, for the United States District Court for the District of Arizona[113]
  • Johnny Carson, television personality (Millsaps College)
  • Warren Christopher, 63rd U.S. Secretary of State (University of Redlands)
  • Louis J. Cioffi, TV Newsman
  • Henry S. Coleman (1926–2006), acting dean of Columbia College, Columbia University who was held hostage during the Columbia University protests of 1968.[114]
  • Jackie Cooper, actor from Los Angeles, California, attained rank of Captain
  • Roger Corman, filmmaker from Los Angeles, California, (Stanford University)
  • John Piña Craven, helped pioneer the use of Bayesian search techniques to locate objects lost at sea
  • Bill Daley, All-American fullback who played for the University of Minnesota Golden Gophers from 1940–1942 and the University of Michigan Wolverines in 1943
  • Robert V. Daniels, American historian and educator specializing in the history of the Soviet Union
  • Alvin Dark, Baseball Player, Manager (LSU & University of Louisiana-Lafayette)
  • Jeremiah A. Denton, Jr., Senator, Navy Admiral
  • Alfred J. Eggers, NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics), NASA
  • Bump Elliott, American football player, coach, and college athletics administrator, played halfback at Purdue University (1943–1944) and the University of Michigan (1946–1947)[63]
  • Daniel J. Evans, Senator, Governor
  • Jim Fitzgerald, businessman and philanthropist (University of Notre Dame)
  • Aloysius C. Galvin, American Jesuit priest, teacher, administrator[51]
  • Warren Giese, South Carolina legislator and football coach
  • Bernard M. Gordon, inventor and philanthropist.
  • Samuel Gravely, first African-American Admiral (UCLA & Columbia University)
  • Wyndol Gray, American professional basketball player in the 1940s[115]
  • Peter Hackes, TV Newsman, White House Correspondent
  • John Woodland Hastings, leader in the field of photobiology, especially bioluminescence, and is one of the founders of the field of circadian biology
  • Wilmot N. Hess, physicist, NASA Apollo moon missions, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) hurricane research and oil spill cleanup
  • Bruce Hilkene, captain and starting left tackle of the undefeated 1947 Michigan Wolverines football team[116]
  • Elroy Hirsch, LA Rams Football Great
  • Robert F. Kennedy, U.S. Attorney General, U.S. Senator (Bates College & Harvard University)
  • E. Henry Knoche, deputy director of the CIA, from 1976 to 1977, and acting Director of Central Intelligence in 1977
  • Bowie Kuhn, Baseball Commissioner (Franklin & Marshall College & Princeton University)
  • Melvin Laird, Secretary of Defense
  • John Black Lee, architect in New Canaan, Connecticut
  • Jack Lemmon, actor (Harvard University)
  • Charles McC. Mathias, Jr., Senator
  • Norman Mead Maxon, Community Developer and Architect for Green Valley Arizona, Streamwood and Trout Valley, Illinois
  • James McClure, Senator
  • Sam Mele, (right fielder, manager, coach and scout in Major League Baseball, led the Minnesota Twins to their first American League championship in 1965
  • Wayne E. Meyer, regarded as the "Father of Aegis" for his service as the Aegis Weapon System Manager, founding project manager of the Aegis Shipbuilding Project Office
  • William Middendorf II, Ambassador, Secretary of the Navy
  • Frank N. Mitchell, Marine First Lieutenant who posthumously received the United States' highest military decoration – the Medal of Honor for his heroic actions during the Korean War
  • Daniel Patrick Moynihan, U.S. Senator from New York (Tufts University)
  • Fred Negus, played college football for University of Wisconsin and University of Michigan and professional in the All-America Football Conference and the National Football League
  • Paul Newman, actor, entered the program at Ohio University but had to drop out because of color blindness[117]
  • David "Sam" Peckinpah, film director (University of Louisiana-Lafayette)
  • John A. Peoples, Jr., College President (1967-1984) Jackson State University (Jackson State University) and (University of Chicago)
  • Sidney Phillips, author, physician, US Marine
  • William Dale Phillips, chemist, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopist, federal science policy advisor and member of the National Academy of Sciences
  • Robert C. Pierpoint, TV Newsman, White House Correspondent
  • Victor Prather, American flight surgeon famous for taking part in "Project RAM", a government project to develop the space suit
  • John Prchlik, NFL Player – Detroit Lions
  • Al Rosen, Baseball Player
  • Carl T. Rowan, Columnist, TV Personality, Ambassador
  • Harold Lyman Ryan, served as a federal judge on the United States District Court for the District of Idaho.
  • Leo Ryan, U.S. Congressman killed in Guyana before the Jonestown Massacre (Bates College)
  • Kenneth G. Ryder, president of Northeastern University from 1975-1989
  • Pierre Salinger, Newsman, Presidential Press Secretary
  • Phillip Shriver, historian and college administrator who was president of Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, from 1965 to 1981
  • G. William Skinner, leading American anthropologist and scholar of China
  • Eugene Sledge, Author US Marine
  • William Styron, novelist and essayist (Duke University)
  • Lachlan Maury Vass, petroleum industry executive noted for increasing existing petroleum reserves and off shore exploration
  • Robert Lawson Vaught, mathematical logician, and one of the founders of model theory
  • James Logan Waters, founder of Waters Corporation, a publicly traded laboratory analytical instrument and software company
  • William Webster, Director, CIA and FBI
  • Thomas Grey "Tom" Wicker, Columnist
  • Roger Williams (pianist), Musician, Entertainer
  • William W. Winpisinger, president of the million-member International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers
  • Benjamin Drake Wright American psychometrician, largely responsible for the widespread adoption of Georg Rasch's measurement principles and models
  • Ernest M Zaiser Jr - General Manager McDonnell Douglas F-4 Technical Services, Representative Director McDonnell Douglas Japan, Vice President Operations McDonnell Douglas F-15 Technical Services {Yale University}.
  • Zig Ziglar, author, salesperson, and motivational speaker (University of South Carolina).

References[]

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  8. "Yellow Jacket Player, Lee Tressel - 1943-47". Berea, Ohio: Baldwin-Wallace College. 2011. http://www.bw.edu/athletics/fb/history/tressel1/1943-47/. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
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