|Weapons of mass destruction|
The term "weapon of mass destruction" usually refers to nuclear, radiological, biological, or chemical weapons. A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) or (WoMD) is a weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans and/or cause great damage to man-made structures (e.g. buildings), natural structures (e.g. mountains), or the biosphere in general. The scope and application of the term has evolved and been disputed, often signifying more politically than technically. Coined in reference to aerial bombing with chemical explosives, it has come to distinguish large-scale weaponry of other technologies, such as chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear. This differentiates the term from more technical ones such as chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear weapons (CBRN).
Early uses of the term weapon of mass destructionEdit
Who can think at this present time without a sickening of the heart of the appalling slaughter, the suffering, the manifold misery brought by war to Spain and to China? Who can think without horror of what another widespread war would mean, waged as it would be with all the new weapons of mass destruction?
At the time, the United States (with help from Western Allies) had yet to develop and use nuclear weapons. Japan conducted research on biological weapons (see Unit 731), and chemical weapons had seen wide use, most notably in World War I.
Following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and progressing through the Cold War, the term came to refer more to non-conventional weapons. The application of the term to specifically nuclear and radiological weapons is traced by William Safire to the Russian phrase "Оружие массового поражения" – oruzhiye massovovo porazheniya (weapons of mass destruction).
He credits James Goodby (of the Brookings Institution) with tracing what he considers the earliest known English-language use soon after the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (although it is not quite verbatim): a communique from a 15 November 1945, meeting of Harry Truman, Clement Attlee and Mackenzie King (probably drafted by Vannevar Bush– or so Bush claimed in 1970) referred to "weapons adaptable to mass destruction".
That exact phrase, says Safire, was also used by Bernard Baruch in 1946 (in a speech at the United Nations probably written by Herbert Bayard Swope). The same phrase found its way into the very first resolution adopted by the United Nations General assembly in January 1946 in London, which used the wording "...the elimination from national armaments of atomic weapons and of all other weapons adaptable to mass destruction." This resolution also created the Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)).
An exact use of this term was given in a lecture "Atomic Energy as an Atomic Problem" by J. Robert Oppenheimer. The lecture was delivered to the Foreign Service and the State Department, on 17 September 1947. The lecture is reprinted in The Open Mind (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1955).
"It is a very far reaching control which would eliminate the rivalry between nations in this field, which would prevent the surreptitious arming of one nation against another, which would provide some cushion of time before atomic attack, and presumably therefore before any attack with weapons of mass destruction, and which would go a long way toward removing atomic energy at least as a source of conflict between the powers".
Evolution of its useEdit
During the Cold War, the term "weapons of mass destruction" was primarily a reference to nuclear weapons. At the time, in the West the euphemism "strategic weapons" was used to refer to the American nuclear arsenal, which was presented as a necessary deterrent against nuclear or conventional attack from the Soviet Union (see Mutual Assured Destruction).
The term "weapons of mass destruction" continued to see periodic use throughout this time, usually in the context of nuclear arms control; Ronald Reagan used it during the 1986 Reykjavík Summit, when referring to the 1967 Outer Space Treaty. Reagan's successor, George H.W. Bush, used the term in an 1989 speech to the United Nations, using it primarily in reference to chemical arms.
The end of the Cold War reduced U.S. reliance on nuclear weapons as a deterrent, causing it to shift its focus to disarmament. This period coincided with an increasing threat to U.S. interests from Islamic nations and independent Islamic groups. With the 1990 invasion of Kuwait and 1991 Gulf War, Iraq's nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons programs became a particular concern of the first Bush Administration. Following the war, Bill Clinton and other western politicians and media continued to use the term, usually in reference to ongoing attempts to dismantle Iraq's weapons programs.
After the 11 September 2001 attacks and the 2001 anthrax attacks, an increased fear of non-conventional weapons and asymmetrical warfare took hold of the United States and other Western powers. This fear reached a crescendo with the 2002 Iraq disarmament crisis and the alleged existence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq that became the primary justification for the 2003 invasion of Iraq. However, no WMD were found in Iraq.[a]
Because of its prolific use during this period, the American Dialect Society voted "weapons of mass destruction" (and its abbreviation, "WMD") the word of the year in 2002, and in 2003 Lake Superior State University added WMD to its list of terms banished for "Mis-use, Over-use and General Uselessness".
In its Criminal Complaint against the main suspect of the Boston Marathon bombing of 15 April 2013, the FBI refers to a pressure-cooker improvised bomb as a "weapon of mass destruction".
Definitions of the termEdit
The most widely used definition of "weapons of mass destruction" is that of nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons (NBC) although there is no treaty or customary international law that contains an authoritative definition. Instead, international law has been used with respect to the specific categories of weapons within WMD, and not to WMD as a whole. While nuclear, chemical and biological weapons are regarded as the three major types of WMDs, some analysts have argued that radiological materials as well as missile technology and delivery systems such as aircraft and ballistic missiles could be labeled as WMDs as well.
The abbreviations NBC (for nuclear, biological and chemical) or CBR (chemical, biological, radiological) are used with regards to battlefield protection systems for armored vehicles, because all three involve insidious toxins that can be carried through the air and can be protected against with vehicle air filtration systems.
However, there is an argument that nuclear and biological weapons do not belong in the same category as chemical and "dirty bomb" radiological weapons, which have limited destructive potential (and close to none, as far as property is concerned), whereas nuclear and biological weapons have the unique ability to kill large numbers of people with very small amounts of material, and thus could be said to belong in a class by themselves.
The NBC definition has also been used in official U.S. documents, by the U.S. President, the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the U.S. Government Accountability Office.
- Chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear weapons capable of a high order of destruction or causing mass casualties and exclude the means of transporting or propelling the weapon where such means is a separable and divisible part from the weapon. Also called WMD.
This may also refer to nuclear ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles).
The significance of the words separable and divisible part of the weapon is that missiles such as the Pershing II and the SCUD are considered weapons of mass destruction, while aircraft capable of carrying bombloads are not.
In 2004, the United Kingdom's Butler Review recognized the "considerable and long-standing academic debate about the proper interpretation of the phrase ‘weapons of mass destruction’". The committee set out to avoid the general term but when using it, employed the definition of United Nations Security Council Resolution 687, which defined the systems which Iraq was required to abandon:
- "Nuclear weapons or nuclear-weapons-usable material or any sub-systems or components or any research, development, support or manufacturing facilities relating to [nuclear weapons].
- Chemical and biological weapons and all stocks of agents and all related subsystems and components and all research,development,support and manufacturing facilities.
- Ballistic missiles with a range greater than 150 kilometres and related major parts, and repair and production facilities."
Chemical weapons expert Gert G. Harigel considers only nuclear weapons true weapons of mass destruction, because "only nuclear weapons are completely indiscriminate by their explosive power, heat radiation and radioactivity, and only they should therefore be called a weapon of mass destruction". He prefers to call chemical and biological weapons "weapons of terror" when aimed against civilians and "weapons of intimidation" for soldiers.
Testimony of one such soldier expresses the same viewpoint. For a period of several months in the winter of 2002–2003, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz frequently used the term "weapons of mass terror," apparently also recognizing the distinction between the psychological and the physical effects of many things currently falling into the WMD category.
Gustavo Bell Lemus, the Vice President of Colombia, at 9 July 2001 United Nations Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects, quoted the Millennium Report of the UN Secretary-General to the General Assembly, in which Kofi Annan said that small arms could be described as WMD because the fatalities they cause "dwarf that of all other weapons systems – and in most years greatly exceed the toll of the atomic bombs that devastated Hiroshima and Nagasaki".
An additional condition often implicitly applied to WMD is that the use of the weapons must be strategic. In other words, they would be designed to "have consequences far outweighing the size and effectiveness of the weapons themselves". The strategic nature of WMD also defines their function in the military doctrine of total war as targeting the means a country would use to support and supply its war effort, specifically its population, industry, and natural resources.
Within U.S. civil defense organizations, the category is now Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive (CBRNE), which defines WMD as:
- (1) Any explosive, incendiary, poison gas, bomb, grenade, or rocket having a propellant charge of more than four ounces [113 g], missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one-quarter ounce [7 g], or mine or device similar to the above. (2) Poison gas. (3) Any weapon involving a disease organism. (4) Any weapon that is designed to release radiation at a level dangerous to human life.
- any weapon or device that is intended, or has the capability, to cause death or serious bodily injury to a significant number of people through the release, dissemination, or impact of:
- toxic or poisonous chemicals or their precursors
- a disease organism
- radiation or radioactivity
For the purposes of the prevention of weapons proliferation, the U.S. Code defines weapons of mass destruction as "chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons, and chemical, biological, and nuclear materials used in the manufacture of such weapons."
For the purposes of US criminal law concerning terrorism, weapons of mass destruction are defined as:
- any "destructive device" defined as any explosive, incendiary, or poison gas - bomb, grenade, rocket having a propellant charge of more than four ounces, missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one-quarter ounce, mine, or device similar to any of the devices described in the preceding clauses
- any weapon that is designed or intended to cause death or serious bodily injury through the release, dissemination, or impact of toxic or poisonous chemicals, or their precursors
- any weapon involving a biological agent, toxin, or vector
- any weapon that is designed to release radiation or radioactivity at a level dangerous to human life
The Federal Bureau of Investigation's definition is similar to that presented above from the terrorism statute:
- any "destructive device" as defined in Title 18 USC Section 921: any explosive, incendiary, or poison gas - bomb, grenade, rocket having a propellant charge of more than four ounces, missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one-quarter ounce, mine, or device similar to any of the devices described in the preceding clauses
- any weapon designed or intended to cause death or serious bodily injury through the release, dissemination, or impact of toxic or poisonous chemicals or their precursors
- any weapon involving a disease organism
- any weapon designed to release radiation or radioactivity at a level dangerous to human life
- any device or weapon designed or intended to cause death or serious bodily injury by causing a malfunction of or destruction of an aircraft or other vehicle that carries humans or of an aircraft or other vehicle whose malfunction or destruction may cause said aircraft or other vehicle to cause death or serious bodily injury to humans who may be within range of the vector in its course of travel or the travel of its debris.
Indictments and convictions for possession and use of WMD such as truck bombs, pipe bombs, shoe bombs, and cactus needles coated with botulin toxin have been obtained under 18 USC 2332a.
As defined by 18 USC §2332 (a), a Weapon of Mass Destruction is:
- (a) any destructive device as defined in section 921 of the title;
- (B) any weapon that is designed or intended to cause death or serious bodily injury through the release, dissemination, or impact of toxic or poisonous chemicals, or their precursors;
- (C) any weapon involving a biological agent, toxin, or vector (as those terms are defined in section 178 of this title); or
- (D) any weapon that is designed to release radiation or radioactivity at a level dangerous to human life;
Under the same statute, conspiring, attempting, threatening, or using a Weapon of Mass Destruction may be imprisoned for any term of years or for life, and if by death, be punishable by death or by imprisonment for any terms of years or for life. They can also be asked to pay a maximum fine of $250,000.
The Washington Post reported on 30 March 2006: "Jurors asked the judge in the death penalty trial of Zacarias Moussaoui today to define the term 'weapons of mass destruction' and were told it includes airplanes used as missiles". Moussaoui was indicted and tried for the use of airplanes as WMD.
The surviving Boston Marathon bombing suspect, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, was charged in April 2013 with the federal offense of "use of a weapon of mass destruction" after he and his brother allegedly placed crude shrapnel bombs, made from pressure cookers packed with ball bearings and nails, near the finish line of Boston's most famous race. His alleged terrorist act resulted in three deaths and at least 282 injuries.
The development and use of WMD is governed by several international conventions and treaties, although not all countries have signed and ratified them:
- Partial Test Ban Treaty
- Outer Space Treaty
- Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
- Seabed Arms Control Treaty
- Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT, has not entered into force as of 2012)
- Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC)
- Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)
WMD use, possession and accessEdit
The only country to have used a nuclear weapon in war is the United States, which dropped two atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II. There are eight countries that have declared they possess nuclear weapons and are known to have tested a nuclear weapon, only five of which are members of the NPT. The eight are China, France, India, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Israel is considered by most analysts to have nuclear weapons numbering in the low hundreds as well, but maintains an official policy of nuclear ambiguity, neither denying nor confirming its nuclear status.
South Africa developed a small nuclear arsenal in the 1980s but disassembled them in the early 1990s, making it the only country to have fully given up an independently developed nuclear weapons arsenal. Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine inherited stockpiles of nuclear arms following the break-up of the Soviet Union, but relinquished them to the Russian Federation.
Countries with access to nuclear weapons through nuclear sharing agreements include Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Turkey. North Korea has claimed to have developed and tested nuclear devices. Although outside sources have been unable to unequivocally support the state's claims, North Korea has officially been identified to have nuclear weapons.
United States politicsEdit
Due to the indiscriminate impact of WMD, the fear of a WMD attack has shaped political policies and campaigns, fostered social movements, and has been the central theme of many films. Support for different levels of WMD development and control varies nationally and internationally. Yet understanding of the nature of the threats is not high, in part because of imprecise usage of the term by politicians and the media.
Fear of WMD, or of threats diminished by the possession of WMD, has long been used to catalyze public support for various WMD policies. They include mobilization of pro- and anti-WMD campaigners alike, and generation of popular political support. The term WMD may be used as a powerful buzzword or to generate a culture of fear. It is also used ambiguously, particularly by not distinguishing among the different types of WMD.
More recently, the threat of potential WMD in Iraq was used by President George W. Bush as justification for the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Broad reference to Iraqi WMD in general was seen as an element of President Bush's arguments. The claim that Iraq possessed Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) led to the invasion of Iraq in 2003 by Coalition forces. However, WMDs were not found.
In 2004, Polish troops found nineteen 1980s-era rocket warheads, thwarting an attempt by militants to buy them at $5000 each. Some of the rockets contained extremely deteriorated nerve agent.
Media coverage of WMDEdit
In 2004, the Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland (CISSM) released a report examining the media’s coverage of WMD issues during three separate periods: nuclear weapons tests by India and Pakistan in May 1998; the US announcement of evidence of a North Korean nuclear weapons program in October 2002; and revelations about Iran's nuclear program in May 2003. The CISSM report notes that poor coverage resulted less from political bias among the media than from tired journalistic conventions. The report’s major findings were that:
- Most media outlets represented WMD as a monolithic menace, failing to adequately distinguish between weapons programs and actual weapons or to address the real differences among chemical, biological, nuclear, and radiological weapons.
- Most journalists accepted the Bush administration’s formulation of the “War on Terror” as a campaign against WMD, in contrast to coverage during the Clinton era, when many journalists made careful distinctions between acts of terrorism and the acquisition and use of WMD.
- Many stories stenographically reported the incumbent administration’s perspective on WMD, giving too little critical examination of the way officials framed the events, issues, threats, and policy options.
- Too few stories proffered alternative perspectives to official line, a problem exacerbated by the journalistic prioritizing of breaking-news stories and the “inverted pyramid” style of storytelling.
In a separate study published in 2005, a group of researchers assessed the effects reports and retractions in the media had on people’s memory regarding the search for WMD in Iraq during the 2003 Iraq War. The study focused on populations in two coalition countries (Australia and USA) and one opposed to the war (Germany). Results showed that US citizens generally did not correct initial misconceptions regarding WMD, even following disconfirmation; Australian and German citizens were more responsive to retractions. Dependence on the initial source of information led to a substantial minority of Americans exhibiting false memory that WMD were indeed discovered, while they were not. This led to three conclusions:
- The repetition of tentative news stories, even if they are subsequently disconfirmed, can assist in the creation of false memories in a substantial proportion of people.
- Once information is published, its subsequent correction does not alter people's beliefs unless they are suspicious about the motives underlying the events the news stories are about.
- When people ignore corrections, they do so irrespective of how certain they are that the corrections occurred.
A poll conducted between June and September 2003 asked people whether they thought evidence of WMD had been discovered in Iraq since the war ended. They were also asked which media sources they relied upon. Those who obtained their news primarily from Fox News were three times as likely to believe that evidence of WMD had been discovered in Iraq than those who relied on PBS and NPR for their news, and one third more likely than those who primarily watched CBS.
|Media source||Respondents believing evidence of WMD had been found in Iraq|
Based on a series of polls taken from June–September 2003.
In 2006 Fox News reported the claims of two Republican lawmakers that WMDs had been found in Iraq, based upon unclassified portions of a report by the National Ground Intelligence Center. Quoting from the report, Senator Rick Santorum said "Since 2003, coalition forces have recovered approximately 500 weapons munitions which contain degraded mustard or sarin nerve agent". According to David Kay, who appeared before the US House Armed Services Committee to discuss these badly corroded munitions, they were leftovers, many years old, improperly stored or destroyed by the Iraqis. Charles Duelfer agreed, stating on NPR's Talk of the Nation: "When I was running the ISG – the Iraq Survey Group – we had a couple of them that had been turned in to these IEDs, the improvised explosive devices. But they are local hazards. They are not a major, you know, weapon of mass destruction."
Later, wikileaks would show that these kind of WMDs continued to be found as the Iraqi occupation continued.
Public perceptions of WMDEdit
Awareness and opinions of WMD have varied during the course of their history. Their threat is a source of unease, security, and pride to different people. The anti-WMD movement is embodied most in nuclear disarmament, and led to the formation of the British Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in 1957.
In order to increase awareness of all kinds of WMD, in 2004 the nuclear physicist and Nobel Peace Prize winner Joseph Rotblat inspired the creation of The WMD Awareness Programme to provide trustworthy and up to date information on WMD world wide.
In 1998 University of New Mexico's Institute for Public Policy released their third report on US perceptions – including the general public, politicians and scientists – of nuclear weapons since the breakup of the Soviet Union. Risks of nuclear conflict, proliferation, and terrorism were seen as substantial.
While maintenance of a nuclear US arsenal was considered above average in importance, there was widespread support for a reduction in the stockpile, and very little support for developing and testing new nuclear weapons.
Also in 1998, but after the UNM survey was conducted, nuclear weapons became an issue in India's election of March, in relation to political tensions with neighboring Pakistan. Prior to the election the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) announced it would “declare India a nuclear weapon state” after coming to power.
BJP won the elections, and on 14 May, three days after India tested nuclear weapons for the second time, a public opinion poll reported that a majority of Indians favored the country’s nuclear build-up.
On 15 April 2004, the Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA) reported that US citizens showed high levels of concern regarding WMD, and that preventing the spread of nuclear weapons should be "a very important US foreign policy goal", accomplished through multilateral arms control rather than the use of military threats.
A majority also believed the US should be more forthcoming with its biological research and its Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty commitment of nuclear arms reduction, and incorrectly thought the US was a party to various non-proliferation treaties.
A Russian opinion poll conducted on 5 August 2005 indicated half the population believes new nuclear powers have the right to possess nuclear weapons. 39% believes the Russian stockpile should be reduced, though not fully eliminated.
WMD in popular cultureEdit
Weapons of mass destruction and their related impacts have been a mainstay of popular culture since the beginning of the Cold War, as both political commentary and humorous outlet.
Common hazard symbolsEdit
Radioactive weaponry/hazard symbolEdit
The international radioactivity symbol (also known as trefoil) first appeared in 1946, at the University of California, Berkeley Radiation Laboratory. At the time, it was rendered as magenta, and was set on a blue background.
It is drawn with a central circle of radius R, the blades having an internal radius of 1.5R and an external radius of 5R, and separated from each other by 60°. It is meant to represent a radiating atom.
The International Atomic Energy Agency found, however, that the symbol is unintuitive and can be variously interpreted by those uneducated in its meaning, and that its role as a hazard warning was compromised as it did not clearly indicate "danger" to many non-Westerners and children who encountered it. As a result of research, a new radiation hazard symbol was developed to be placed near the most dangerous parts of radiation sources featuring a skull, someone running away, and using the color red rather than yellow as the background.
Biological weaponry/hazard symbolEdit
Developed by Dow Chemical company in the 1960s for their containment products.
According to Charles Dullin, an environmental-health engineer who contributed to its development:
We wanted something that was memorable but meaningless, so we could educate people as to what it means.
- Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction
- Commission on the Prevention of WMD proliferation and terrorism
- Ethnic bioweapons
- Fallout shelter
- NBC suit
- Nuclear terrorism
- Orbital bombardment
- Russia and weapons of mass destruction
- United States and weapons of mass destruction
- Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission
- Category:Fictional weapons of mass destruction
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- ↑ By MICHAEL WINES, Special to The New York Times (30 September 1990). "Confrontation in the Gulf; U.S. Explores New Strategies to Limit Weapons of Mass Destruction –". New York Times. IRAQ. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE3DD1130F933A0575AC0A966958260. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
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- ↑ "Criminal Complaint United States vs Dzhokhar Tsarnaev". http://apps.washingtonpost.com/g/documents/national/criminal-complaint-united-states-vs-dzhokhar-tsarnaev/412/. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 Weapons of Mass Destruction Hampshire College
- ↑ Archived April 2, 2010 at the Wayback Machine
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- ↑ CIA Site Redirect – Central Intelligence Agency
- ↑ Archived October 1, 2004 at the Wayback Machine
- ↑ Archived June 1, 2006 at the Wayback Machine
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- ↑ "Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms". Dtic.mil. 12 April 2001. http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/dod_dictionary/. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ↑ Review of Intelligence on Weapons of Mass Destruction: Report of a Committee of Privy Counsellors (HC 898), London: The Stationery Office, 2004, §14.
- ↑ "A Soldier's Viewpoint on Surviving Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Attacks". Sightm1911.com. http://www.sightm1911.com/lib/other/nbc.htm. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ↑ "Colombia". Web.archive.org. 2 September 2007. Archived from the original on 2 September 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070902003808/http://disarmament.un.org/cab/smallarms/statements/colombiaE.html. Retrieved 14 May 2012. [dead link]
- ↑ What makes a weapon one of mass destruction? – Times OnlineArchived March 11, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- ↑ "US CODE: Title 50—War and National Defense". .law.cornell.edu. 23 March 2010. http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/50/usc_sup_01_50.html. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ↑ "US CODE: 50, ch. 40—Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction". .law.cornell.edu. 23 March 2010. http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/50/usc_sup_01_50_10_40.html. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ↑ "US CODE: 50, ch. 40, § 2302. Definitions". .law.cornell.edu. 23 March 2010. http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/50/usc_sec_50_00002302----000-.html. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ↑ "US CODE: 50, ch. 43—Preventing Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism". .law.cornell.edu. 23 March 2010. http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/50/usc_sup_01_50_10_43.html. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ↑ "US CODE: 50, ch. 43; § 2902. Definitions". .law.cornell.edu. 23 March 2010. http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/50/usc_sec_50_00002902----000-.html. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ↑ "US CODE: Chapter 113B—Terrorism". .law.cornell.edu. 28 June 2010. http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode18/usc_sup_01_18_10_I_20_113B.html. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ↑ "US CODE: Title 18, § 921. Definitions". .law.cornell.edu. 13 September 1994. http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode18/usc_sec_18_00000921----000-.html. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ↑ "US CODE: Title 18, § 2332a. Use of weapons of mass destruction". .law.cornell.edu. 28 June 2010. http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode18/usc_sec_18_00002332---a000-.html. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ↑ "What is A Weapon of Mass Destruction". Fbi.gov. 30 March 2007. http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/terrorism/wmd/wmd_faqs/. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ↑ "8/95 Grand Jury Indictment Of McVeigh & Nichols". Lectlaw.com. http://www.lectlaw.com/files/cas44.htm. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
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- ↑ 
- ↑ "David T. Wright – Weapons of mass distraction". Thornwalker.com. 13 April 1998. http://www.thornwalker.com/ditch/dtw_wmd.htm. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ↑ "Weapons of Mass Destruction Are Overrated as a Threat to America: Newsroom: The Independent Institute". Independent.org. 28 January 2004. http://www.independent.org/newsroom/article.asp?id=1256. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ↑ 40.0 40.1 [dead link]
- ↑ "Weapons of mass deception – SourceWatch". Sourcewatch.org. http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Weapons_of_mass_deception. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ↑ "War Pimps, by Jeffrey St. Clair [Weapons of Mass Deception: The Uses of Propaganda in President Bush's War on Iraq, by John Stauber and Sheldon Rampton]". Theava.com. 13 August 2003. http://www.theava.com/03/08-13-warpimps.html. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ↑ "Troops 'foil Iraq nerve gas bid'". BBC. 2 July 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/3861197.stm. Retrieved 7 December 2007.
- ↑  by Prof. Susan Moeller
- ↑ "Psychological Science – Journal Information". Blackwellpublishing.com. http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0956-7976. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ↑ Misperceptions, the Media and the Iraq War, PIPA, 2 October 2003
- ↑ "Report: Hundreds of WMDs Found in Iraq". Fox News. 22 June 2006. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,200499,00.html.
- ↑ Kay, David. "House Armed Services Committee Hearing", 29 June 2006
- ↑ Duelfer, Charles. Expert: Iraq WMD Find Did Not Point to Ongoing Program NPR. 22 June 2006
- ↑ Shachtman, Noah (23 October 2010). "WikiLeaks Show WMD Hunt Continued in Iraq – With Surprising Results". Wired.com. http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2010/10/wikileaks-show-wmd-hunt-continued-in-iraq-with-surprising-results/.
- ↑ "CIA's Final Report: No WMD Found in Iraq". MSNBC. 25 April 2005. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7634313/.
- ↑ "Iraq WMD Inspectors End Search, Find Nothing". Fox News. 26 April 2005. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,154574,00.html.
- ↑ wmdawareness.org.uk
- ↑ John Pike. "Sandia National Laboratories – News Releases". Globalsecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/usa/1998/980803-nuclear.htm. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ↑ John Pike. "17 Days in May – India Nuclear Forces". Globalsecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/india/chron.htm. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ↑ "The Pipa/Knowledge Networks Polll". Web.archive.org. 29 September 2005. Archived from the original on 29 September 2005. http://web.archive.org/web/20050929024408/http://www.pipa.org/OnlineReports/WMD/WMDreport_04_15_04.pdf. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
- ↑ Russian public opinion on nuclear weapons (5 August 2005). "Russian public opinion on nuclear weapons – Blog – Russian strategic nuclear forces". Russianforces.org. http://russianforces.org/eng/blog/archive/000580.shtml. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ↑ "Origin of the Radiation Warning Symbol (Trefoil)". http://www.orau.org/ptp/articlesstories/radwarnsymbstory.htm.
- ↑ 59.0 59.1 "Biohazard and radioactive Symbol, design and proportions". http://www.michigan.gov/documents/CIS_WSH_part476_54539_7.pdf.
- ↑ Linda Lodding, "Drop it and Run! New Symbol Warns of Radiation Dangers and Aims to Save Lives," IAEA Bulletin 482 (March 2007): 70–72.
- ↑ "Biohazard Symbol History". http://www.hms.harvard.edu/orsp/coms/BiosafetyResources/History-of-Biohazard-Symbol.htm.
- ↑ Munitions Found in Iraq Meet WMD Criteria, Military.com, report filed by American Forces Press Service, 29 June 2006
- Chemical and Biological Weapons: Use in Warfare, Impact on Society and Environment, by Gert G. Harigel, 2001.
Definition and originEdit
- "WMD: Words of mass dissemination" (12 February 2003), BBC News.
- Bentley, Michelle, “War and/of Worlds: Constructing WMD in U.S. Foreign Policy,” Security Studies 22 (Jan. 2013), 68–97.
- Michael Evans, "What makes a weapon one of mass destruction?" (6 February 2004), The Times.
- Bruce Schneier, "Definition of 'Weapon of Mass Destruction'" (6 April 2009), Schneier on Security.
- Stefano Felician, Le armi di distruzione di massa, CEMISS, Roma, 2010, 
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540
- David P. Fidler, "Weapons of Mass Destruction and International Law" (February 2003), American Society of International Law.
- Joanne Mariner, "FindLaw Forum: Weapons of mass destruction and international law's principle that civilians cannot be targeted" (20 November 2001), CNN.
- Media Coverage of Weapons of Mass Destruction, by Susan D. Moeller, Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland, 2004.
- Memory for fact, fiction, and misinformation, by Stephan Lewandowsky, Werner G.K. Stritzke, Klaus Oberauer, and Michael Morales, Psychological Science, 16(3): 190–195, 2005.
- Steven Kull et al., Americans on WMD Proliferation (15 April 2004), Program on International Policy Attitudes/Knowledge Networks survey.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Weapons of mass destruction.|
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- Avoiding Armageddon, PBS
- FAS assessment of countries that own weapons of mass destruction
- National Counterproliferation Center – Office of the Director of National Intelligence
- HLSWatch.com: Homeland Security Watch policy and current events resource
- Office of the Special Assistant for Chemical Biological Defense and Chemical Demilitarization Programs, Official Department of Defense web site that provides information about the DoD Chemical Biological Defense Program
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- The WMD Awareness Programme, Inspired by the 1995 Nobel Peace Prize winner Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat, The WMD Awareness Programme is dedicated to providing trustworthy and up to date information on Weapons of Mass Destruction world wide.
- Radius Engineering International Inc. "Nuclear Weapons Effects". In Radius Engineering International Inc. http://www.bomb-shelter.net/nuc%20table.pdf. Retrieved 20 December 2010. These tables describe the effects of various nuclear blast sizes. All figures are for 15 mph (13 kn; 24 km/h) winds. Thermal burns represent injuries to an unprotected person. The legend describes the data.
- Gareth Porter, Documents linking Iran to nuclear weapons push may have been fabricated, TheRawStory, 10 November 2008
- Gareth Porter, The Iranian Nuke Forgeries: CIA Determines Documents were Fabricated, CounterPunch, 29 December 2009
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