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Werner Hartmann
Werner.hartmann.jpg
Born (1902-12-11)11 December 1902
Died 26 April 1963(1963-04-26) (aged 60)
Place of birth Silstedt, Harz
Place of death Ussel, Waldeck
Allegiance Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Weimar Republic (to 1933)
Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Nazi Germany (to 1945)
Flag of Germany.png West Germany
Service/branch Flag of Weimar Republic (jack).svg Reichsmarine
War Ensign of Germany (1938–1945).svg Kriegsmarine
Naval Ensign of Germany.svg German Navy
Years of service 1921–1945, 1956–1962
Rank Kapitän zur See
Unit SSS Niobe
Hannover
Berlin
cruiser Emden
cruiser Karlsruhe
2nd U-boat Flotilla
6th U-boat Flotilla
12th U-boat Flotilla
27th U-boat Flotilla
Commands held torpedo boat Seeadler
torpedo boat Jaguar
U-26 May 1936 – 30 September 1938
U-37 25 September 1939 – 6 May 1940
U-198 3 November 1942 – 15 January 1944
Awards Iron Cross First Class
U-boat War Badge
Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves

Captain Werner Hartmann (11 December 1902 – 26 April 1963) was a German U-boat commander in World War II. He sank 26 ships, amounting to over 115,000 gross register tons (GRT) sunk, making him the 25th most successful U-boat commander of the war. He was also a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves (German language:Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub). The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grade Oak Leaves was awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership.

CareerEdit

Werner Hartmann began his naval career with the Reichsmarine of the Weimar Republic on 1 April 1921 as a member of "Crew 1921" (the incoming class of 1921). He went on to serve as commander of the torpedo boats Seeadler and Albatros, before transferring to the U-boat arm in 1935. As commander of U-26 he patrolled Spanish waters during the Civil War in 1937–38 with Günther Prien as his first watch officer. From January–May 1940 Hartmann was commander of both U-37 and 2nd U-boat Flotilla, but directing U-boats while at sea proved inefficient, and the Befehlshaber der U-Boote ("U-boat High Command") decided henceforth to direct the U-boats from land. After three patrols, and sinking 19 ships totalling 78,559 GRT, Hartmann received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.[1] His senior officers on his four patrols on U-37 were future Knight's Cross winners, first watch officer Oberleutnant zur See Ernst Bauer (two patrols) and later Oberleutnant zur See Nicolai Clausen (two patrols), second watch officer Leutnant zur See Gustav Poel and chief engineer Oberleutnant (Ing.) Gerd Suhren.[2]

Hartmann then moved to the BdU as a staff officer, and in November 1940 became commander of the 2nd ULD (U-boat Training Division). A year later he took command of the 27th U-boat Flotilla in Gotenhafen. In November 1942 he took command of the large Type IXD U-198 for a patrol to the Indian Ocean lasting 200 days, the third longest patrol ever undertaken, and sank 7 ships totalling 36,778 GRT. In 1944 Hartmann became Führer der U-Boote Mittelmeer ("Commander of U-boats in the Mediterranean") and in this post received the Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves.[1]

After the war he joined the Bundesmarine on 1 July 1956, commanding the 1. Schiffsstammregiment (1st Naval training regiment) in Glückstadt, retiring on 1 April 1962.[3] He died in 1963.[1]

Summary of careerEdit

Ships attackedEdit

As a U-boat commander of U-37 and U-198 Werner Hartmann is credited with the sinking of 26 ships for a total of 115,337 gross register tons (GRT).

Date U-boat Name Nationality Tonnage
(GRT)
Fate
8 September 1939 U-37 Vistula Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden 1,018 Sunk
12 October 1939 U-37 Artis Flag of Greece.svg Greece 4,810 Sunk
15 October 1939 U-37 Vermont Flag of France.svg France 5,186 Sunk
17 October 1939 U-37 Yorkshire Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 10,183 Sunk
24 October 1939 U-37 Ledbury Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 3,528 Sunk
24 October 1939 U-37 Menin Ridge Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 2,474 Sunk
24 October 1939 U-37 Tafna Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 4,413 Sunk
30 October 1939 U-37 Thrasyvoulos Flag of Greece.svg Greece 3,693 Sunk
4 February 1940 U-37 Hop Flag of Norway.svg Norway 1,365 Sunk
4 February 1940 U-37 Leo Dawson Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 4,330 Sunk
10 February 1940 U-37 Silja Flag of Norway.svg Norway 1,259 Sunk
11 February 1940 U-37 Togimo Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 290 Sunk
15 February 1940 U-37 Aase Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark 1,206 Sunk
17 February 1940 U-37 Pyrrhus Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 7,418 Sunk
18 February 1940 U-37 Elin Flag of Greece.svg Greece 4,917 Sunk
18 February 1940 U-37 P.L.M. 15 Flag of France.svg France 3,754 Sunk
10 April 1940 U-37 Sveaborg Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden 9,076 Sunk
10 April 1940 U-37 Tosca Flag of Norway.svg Norway 5,128 Sunk
12 April 1940 U-37 Stancliffe Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 4,511 Sunk
17 May 1943 U-198 Northmoor Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 4,392 Sunk
29 May 1943 U-198 Hopetarn Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 5,231 Sunk
5 June 1943 U-198 Dumra Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 2,304 Sunk
6 June 1943 U-198 William King United States 7,176 Sunk
6 July 1943 U-198 Hydraios Flag of Greece.svg Greece 4,476 Sunk
7 July 1943 U-198 Leana Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 4,742 Sunk
1 August 1943 U-198 Mangkalihat Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands 8,457 Sunk

AwardsEdit

Wehrmachtbericht referencesEdit

Date Original German Wehrmachtbericht wording Direct English translation
Friday, 1 March 1940 Wie durch Sondermeldung bereits bekanntgegeben, hat ein von Fernfahrt zurückgekehrtes, unter dem Kommando von Korvettenkapitän Werner Hartmann stehendes Unterseeboot die Versenkung von 45 000 BRT gemeldet. Das Unterseeboot hat damit in zwei Unternehmungen die Gesamt-Versenkungsziffer von 80 000 BRT erreicht.[7] As already announced by special bulletin, a submarine returning from war patrol under the command of Lieutenant Commander Werner Hartmann, reported the sinking of 45 000 GRT. The submarine has reached in two undertakings, the total of 80 000 GRT sunk.
Friday, 19 April 1940 Zu der schon bekanntgegebenen Torpedierung eines Kreuzers der "GLASGOW"-Klasse nördlich der Shetland Inseln meldet der von Feindfahrt zurückgekehrte Unterseeboot-Kommandant, daß der von feindlichen Zerstörern stark gesicherte Kreuzer durch eine unmittelbar nach dem Torpedotreffer ausgelösten innere Detonation vernichtet wurde. Die von diesem Unterseeboot-Kommandanten, Korvettenkapitän Hartmann, versenkte Tonnage beläuft sich nach der letzten Fernfahrt auf insgesamt rund 107 000 BRT.[8] In addition to the already announced torpedoing of a cruiser of the "GLASGOW" class north of the Shetland Islands reports the from patrol returning submarine commander, that the by enemy destroyers heavily protected cruiser was destroyed by an internal detonation, triggered immediately after the torpedo hit.[Note 1] The total tonnage sunk after the last war patrol of this submarine commander, Captain Hartmann, amounts to some 107 000 GRT.

NotesEdit

  1. Hartmann had launched an attack on HMS Glasgow or HMS Sheffield on 13 April 1940 failing to sink either.[9]

ReferencesEdit

Citations
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Kapitän zur See Werner Hartmann". uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/men/hartmann.htm. Retrieved 19 April 2010. 
  2. Busch and Röll 2003, p. 31.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Busch and Röll 2003, p. 30.
  4. Williamson and Pavlovic 1995, p. 48.
  5. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 215.
  6. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 92.
  7. Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, pp. 82–83.
  8. Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 117.
  9. Rohwer 2005, p. 19.
Bibliography
  • Busch, Rainer & Röll, Hans-Joachim (2003). Der U-Boot-Krieg 1939-1945 - Die Ritterkreuzträger der U-Boot-Waffe von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 (in German). Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn Germany: Verlag E.S. Mittler & Sohn. ISBN 3-8132-0515-0.
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 (in German). Friedburg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 3-7909-0284-5.
  • Rohwer, Jürgen (2005). Chronology of the War at Sea, 1939-1945: The Naval History of World War II. Annapolis, Md. : Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-119-2.
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.
  • Williamson, Gordon & Pavlovic, Darko (1995). U-Boat Crews 1914–45. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing Limited. ISBN 1-85532-545-4.
  • Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939-1945 Band 1, 1. September 1939 bis 31. Dezember 1941 (in German). München: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, 1985. ISBN 3-423-05944-3.
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External linksEdit

Military offices
Preceded by
none
Commander of 6th U-boat Flotilla
October, 1938 – December, 1939
Succeeded by
Korvettenkapitän Georg-Wilhelm Schulz
Preceded by
Korvettenkapitän Hans Ibbeken
Commander of 2nd U-boat Flotilla
January 1940 – May 1940
Succeeded by
Korvettenkapitän Heinz Fischer
Preceded by
Korvettenkapitän Ernst Sobe
Commander of 27th U-boat Flotilla
December 1941 – November 1942
Succeeded by
Korvettenkapitän Erich Topp



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