Women in the military have a history that extends over 400 years into the past, throughout a large number of cultures and nations. Women have played many roles in the military, from ancient warrior women, to the women currently serving in conflicts, even though the vast majority of all combatants have been men in every culture. Even though women serving in the military has often been controversial, relatively few women in history have fought alongside men. In the American Civil War, there were a few women who cross-dressed as men in order to fight. Fighting on the battle front as men was not the only way women involved themselves in war. Some women braved the battlefront as nurses and aides.
Despite various, though limited, roles in the armies of past societies, the role of women in the military, particularly in combat, is controversial and it is only recently that women have begun to be given a more prominent role in contemporary armed forces. As increasing numbers of countries begin to expand the role of women in their militaries, the debate continues.
From the beginning of the 1970s, most Western armies began to admit women to serve active duty. Only some of them permit women to fill active combat roles, these are: New Zealand, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Germany, Norway, Israel, Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland and Taiwan. In 2011 and 2012, the U.S. Defense Department began looking at loosening its near-universal ban on women serving in direct positions of combat, including ground combat, as opposed to other prominent but non-combat positions (for example, two women second lieutenants were allowed to try, but did not successfully complete, the grueling U.S. Marine Corps Infantry Officer Course). In 2013, the United States Armed Forces overturned a 1994 rule banning women from serving in certain combat positions, potentially clearing the way for the presence of women in front-line units and elite commando teams.
- 1 History
- 2 Academic studies
- 3 Women in combat
- 4 Women on submarines
- 5 Portrayals in popular culture
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
History[edit | edit source]
World War I[edit | edit source]
Thousands of women served as nurses and in other support roles in the major armies.
The only belligerent to deploy female combat troops in substantial numbers was Russia. From the outset, female recruits either joined up in disguise or were tacitly accepted by their units. The most prominent were a contingent of front-line light cavalry in a Cossack regiment commanded by a female colonel. Others included the celebrated Maria Bochkareva, who was decorated three times and promoted to senior NCO rank, while the New York Times reported that a group of twelve schoolgirls from Moscow had joined up together disguised as young men. In 1917, the Provisional Government raised a number of "Women's Battalions", with Bochkareva given an officer's commission to command the first unit. They fought well, but failed to provide the propaganda value expected of them and were disbanded before the end of the year. In the later Russian Civil War, the Bolsheviks employed some women infantry, while female soldiers are also recorded in the White Guard.
World War II[edit | edit source]
All the main nations used women in uniform. The great majority performed nursing, clerical or support roles. Over 500,000 had combat roles in anti-aircraft units in Britain and Germany, and front-line units in Russia.
Britain[edit | edit source]
In 1938, the British took the lead worldwide in establishing uniformed services for women, in addition to the small nurses units that had long been in operation. In late 1941, Britain began conscripting women, sending most into factory work and some into the military, especially the Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS), attached to the army. It began as a woman's auxiliary to the military in 1938, and in 1941 was granted military status (with 2/3 pay compared to men). Women had a well-publicized role in handling anti-aircraft guns against German planes and V-1 missiles. The daughter of Prime Minister Winston Churchill was there, and he gushed that any general who saved him 40,000 fighting men had gained the equivalent of a victory. By August, 1941, women were operating the fire-control instruments; they were never allowed to pull the trigger, as killing the enemy was considered to be "too masculine." By 1943, 56,000 women were in AA Command, most in units close to London where there was a risk of getting killed, but no risk of getting captured by the enemy. The first "kill" came in April 1942.
Germany[edit | edit source]
The Third Reich, contrary to popular belief, had similar roles for women. The SS-Helferinnen were regarded as part of the SS if they had undergone training at a Reichsschule SS but all other female workers were regarded as being contracted to the SS and chosen largely from concentration camps. Women also served in auxiliary units in the navy (Kriegshelferinnen), air force (Luftnachrichtenhelferinnen) and army (Nachrichtenhelferin).
In 1944-45 more than 500,000 women were volunteer uniformed auxiliaries in the German armed forces (Wehrmacht). About the same number served in civil aerial defense, 400,000 volunteered as nurses, and many more replaced drafted men in the wartime economy. In the Luftwaffe they served in combat roles helping to operate the anti—aircraft systems that shot down Allied bombers. By 1945, German women were holding 85% of the billets as clericals, accountants, interpreters, laboratory workers, and administrative workers, together with half of the clerical and junior administrative posts in high-level field headquarters.
Germany had a very large and well organized nursing service, with four main organizations, one for Catholics, one for Protestants, the secular DRK (Red Cross) and the "Brown Nurses," for committed Nazi women. Military nursing was primarily handled by the DRK, which came under partial Nazi control. Frontline medical services were provided by male medics and doctors. Red Cross nurses served widely within the military medical services, staffing the hospitals that perforce were close to the front lines and at risk of bombing attacks. Two dozen were awarded the iron Cross for heroism under fire. The brief historiography focuses on the dilemmas of Brown Nurses forced to look the other way while their incapacitated patients were murdered.
Hundreds of women auxiliaries (Aufseherin) served for the SS in the camps, the majority of which were at Ravensbrück. In Germany women also worked, and were told by Hitler to produce more pure Aryan children to fight in future wars.
Soviet Union[edit | edit source]
After the world wars[edit | edit source]
Congo[edit | edit source]
The Democratic Republic of the Congo began training an initial 150 women as para-commandos in 1967 and many more were trained subsequently, over a period of several years at least. The women did receive complete jump training as well as weapons training although it is unclear to what extent they were actually integrated into the combat units of the Congo.
Israel[edit | edit source]
Israel is currently the only country in the world with a mandatory military service requirement for women. Mandatory conscription for single and married women without children began in 1948. Initially all women conscripts served in the Women's Army Corps, serving as clerks, drivers, welfare workers, nurses, radio operators, flight controllers, ordnance personnel, and course instructors. Roles for women beyond technical and secretarial support started to open up in the late 1970s and early '80s.
In 2000, the Equality amendment to the Military Service law granted equal opportunities in the military to women found physically and personally suitable for a job. Women started to enter combat support and light combat roles in a few areas, including the Artillery Corps, infantry units and armored divisions. A few platoons named Carakal were formed for men and women to serve together in light infantry. Many women would also join the Border Police.
Academic studies[edit | edit source]
A 2008 study by Jennifer M. Silva of female students enrolled in the United States Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) program found that the female cadets saw military training as an "opportunity to be strong, assertive and skillful" and saw such training "as an escape from some of the negative aspects of traditional femininity". The female cadets also believed that the ROTC program was "gender-blind" and "gender-neutral". The study claims that female cadets "were hyper-vigilant about their status as women performing tasks traditionally seen as men's work and often felt that they had to constantly prove they were capable".
Silva's study found gender playing a role in how cadets perceive leadership, quoting one female cadet: "in the Navy the joke is that a woman in the Navy is either a bitch, a slut or a lesbian, and none of them are good categories to fall into, and if you are stern with your people then you are a bitch, but if you're a guy and stern people are like, wow, I respect him for being a good leader".
Of the female cadets Silva interviewed, 84 percent said they did not want a military career as it would interfere with being able to get married and have children.
Women in combat[edit | edit source]
Some nations allow female soldiers to serve in certain Combat Arms positions. Others exclude them for various reasons.
Social and cultural issues[edit | edit source]
Mixed-gender berthing on ships and submarines is an issue. Some people think having women in a combat unit would hurt esprit de corps, that men could not trust them (see also Unit cohesion.) There are worries about romantic or sexual relationships developing (see also Fraternization), or that a woman might get pregnant to avoid combat. Some people are not willing to accept the risk of women being captured and tortured and possibly sexually assaulted, which happened to then-Major Rhonda Cornum. Some argue that there is a shortage of male combat soldiers and that women should not be treated as second-class citizens in the military.
However, according to Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, author of On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society, Israeli soldiers reacted with uncontrollable protectiveness and aggression after seeing a woman wounded.
Grossman also notes that Islamic militants rarely, if ever, surrender to female soldiers, lessening the IDF's ability to interrogate prisoners. On the other hand, Iraqi and Afghan civilians are often not intimidated by female soldiers. However, in such environments, having female soldiers serving in a combat unit does have the advantage of allowing for searches on female civilians. Children and women are more likely to talk to female soldiers than to male soldiers.
A more insidious issue is the rape of women in the military by their own. Some have alleged that a woman in the military is three times more likely than a woman in the general population to be raped, and in Iraq are more likely to be attacked by one of their own than an insurgent. There is currently a lawsuit in the US military in which the plaintiffs claim to have been subjected to sexual assaults in the military. A documentary called The Invisible War has been made on this lawsuit and topic.
Women on submarines[edit | edit source]
In 1985, the Royal Norwegian Navy became the first  navy in the world to permit female personnel to serve in submarines, followed by the appointment of a female submarine captain in 1995. The Danish Navy allowed women on submarines in 1988, the Swedish Navy in 1989, followed by the Royal Australian Navy in 1998, Canada in 2000, and Spain; all operators of conventional submarines.
Social obstacles include the need to segregate accommodation and facilities, with figures from the US Navy highlighting the increased cost, $300,000 per bunk to permit women to serve on submarines versus $4,000 per bunk to allow women to serve on aircraft carriers. However, some countries have women serving on small diesel-electric submarines where they sometimes hot bunk with men.
Recent US Navy policy allowed three exceptions for women being on board military submarines: (1) Female civilian technicians for a few days at most; (2) Women midshipmen on an overnight during summer training for both Navy ROTC and Naval Academy; (3) Family members for one-day dependent cruises.
In October 2009, the U. S. Secretary of the Navy, Ray Mabus announced that he and the Chief of Naval Operations were moving aggressively to change the policy. Reasons included the fact that larger SSGN and SSBN submarines now in the Fleet had more available space and could accommodate female Officers with little or no modification. Also, the availability of qualified female candidates with the desire to serve in this capacity was cited. It was noted that women now represented 15% of the Active Duty Navy  and that women today earn about half of all science and engineering bachelor’s degrees. A policy change was deemed to serve the aspirations of women, the mission of the Navy and the strength of its submarine force.
In February 2010, the Secretary of Defense approved the proposed policy and signed letters formally notifying Congress of the intended change. After receiving no objection, the Department of the Navy officially announced on April 29, 2010, that it had authorized women to serve onboard submarines.
The first group of U.S. female submariners completed nuclear power school and officially reported on board two ballistic and two guided missile submarines in November 2011.
In 2012, it was announced that 2013 will be the first year women will serve on U.S. attack submarines. On June 22, 2012, a Sailor assigned to USS Ohio (SSGN 726) became the first female supply officer to qualify in U.S. submarines. Lt. Britta Christianson of Ohio's Gold Crew received her Submarine Supply Corps "dolphins" from the Gold Crew Commanding Officer Capt. Rodney Mills during a brief ceremony at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS & IMF).
On December 5, 2012, three Sailors assigned to USS Maine (SSBN 741) and USS Wyoming (SSBN 742) became the first female unrestricted line officers to qualify in U.S. submarines. Lt. j.g. Marquette Leveque, a native of Fort Collins, Colo., assigned to the Gold Crew of Wyoming, and Lt. j.g. Amber Cowan and Lt. j.g. Jennifer Noonan of Maine's Blue Crew received their submarine "dolphins" during separate ceremonies at Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Ga., and Naval Base Kitsap-Bangor, Wash.
In 2013, Navy Secretary Ray Mabus said that the first women to join Virginia-class attack subs had been chosen: They were newly commissioned female officers scheduled to report to their subs in fiscal year 2015.
Portrayals in popular culture[edit | edit source]
In the late 20th century and early 21st century, there have been a significant representations of "women warriors" in popular culture, occasionally including women in the military, such as the films G. I. Jane and Down Periscope.
Non-fiction[edit | edit source]
In 2007, author Kirsten Holmstedt released Band of Sisters: American Women at War in Iraq. The book presents twelve stories of American women on the frontlines including America's first female pilot to be shot down and survive, the U.S. military's first black female combat pilot, a 21-year-old turret gunner defending a convoy, two military policewomen in a firefight and a nurse struggling to save lives, including her own. Her second book, The Girls Come Marching Home: Stories of Women Warriors Returning from Iraq details the lives of women who served in combat after they come home.
A television movie about Margarethe Cammermeyer called Serving in Silence, was made in 1995, with Glenn Close starring as Cammermeyer. Cammermeyer, a retired colonel in the Washington National Guard, disclosed in 1989 that she was a lesbian. The movie's content was largely taken from Cammermeyer's autobiography of the same name.
A 2008 documentary entitled Lioness told the story of the first United States servicewomen in combat.
In 2009, author/historian Maureen Duffus released a book entitled Battlefront Nurses in WW I chronicling the story of four years in the lives of two nursing sisters who enlisted in the Canadian Expeditionary Force in Esquimalt, British Columbia, in the summer of 1915. Both served overseas in England, Salonika and France as lieutenants with the Canadian Army Medical Corps. Sources were the diary of Nursing Sister Elsie Collis, a memoir by Nursing Sister Ethel Morrison and their photograph albums.
A 2011 documentary entitled "No Job for a Woman": The Women Who Fought to Report WWII chronicles the work and lives of women war correspondents on the front lines of war reporting from World War II to the Vietnam War and today, focusing specifically on Martha Gellhorn, Dickey Chapelle, and Ruth Cowan.
Fiction[edit | edit source]
Science fiction[edit | edit source]
A notable tendency of science fiction since the 1940s is to place women in dominant military roles. These are often command positions, in some cases for the express purpose of having a woman in command (as was the case for Captain Kathryn Janeway, where the ship having a female captain was used as a selling point). In some cases, this is accompanied by a complete desegregation of the sexes, such as in film, where no one showed any compunctions about undressing, showering, etc. in front of the other gender.
Another example, from the Stargate franchise, is Major (later Colonel) Samantha Carter, an air force officer who was placed in command of a front-line unit. The popular "Kara Thrace", callsign "Starbuck", character played by Katee Sackhoff from the "Battlestar Galactica (2004 TV series)" series was the fleet's best pilot and best shot.
Women openly serve in both frontline infantry and special operations units in the game series Mass Effect, Gears of War, and Halo.
In numerous games, such as Starcraft, women appear as fierce warriors.
See also[edit | edit source]
- Women in combat
- Women in the military by country
- Women in warfare and the military (1945–1999)
- Women in warfare and the military (2000–present)
- Gender and Security Sector Reform
- List of women warriors in folklore
Notes[edit | edit source]
- Campbell, D'Ann. "Women in Combat: The World War Two Experience in the United States, Great Britain, Germany, and the Soviet Union" Journal of Military History (April 1993), 57:301-323. online edition
- Carreiras, Helena (2006). Gender and the military: women in the armed forces of western democracies. New York: Routledge. pp. 1. ISBN 0-415-38358-7. http://www.google.com/books?id=h_teNrU9k6QC&pg=PA1.
- Defence Force launches Womens' Development Steering Group, 8 March 2013.
- Tom Vanden Brook and Jim Michaels (January 23, 2013). "Officials: Panetta opens combat roles to women". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/01/23/panetta-women-combat-pentagon/1859221/. Retrieved January 23, 2013.
- Susan R. Sowers, Women Combatants in World War I: A Russian Case Study" (Strategy Research Project, U.S. Army War College, 2003) PDF
- Reese, Roger R. (2000). The Soviet military experience: a history of the Soviet Army, 1917–1991. Routledge. p. 17.
- G.J. DeGroot, "Whose Finger on the Trigger? Mixed Anti-Aircraft Batteries and the Female Combat Taboo," War in History, (1997) 4#4 pp 434-453
- D'Ann Campbell, "Women in Combat: The World War Two Experience in the United States, Great Britain, Germany, and the Soviet Union", Journal of Military History (1993), 57: 301-323 1993
- Schwarzkopf, 2009
- Sir Frederick Arthur Pile (bart.) (1949). Ack-ack: Britain's defence against air attack during the Second World War. Harrap. p. 193. http://books.google.com/books?id=8BTTAAAAMAAJ.
- Gordon Williamson, World War II German Women's Auxiliary Services (2003).
- Karen Hagemann, "Mobilizing Women for War: The History, Historiography, and Memory of German Women's War Service in the Two World Wars," Journal of Military History (2011) 75#4 pp 1055-1094
- Campbell, D'Ann (April 1993). "Women in Combat: The World War Two Experience in the United States, Great Britain, Germany, and the Soviet Union". pp. 301–323. http://americanhistoryprojects.com/downloads/ww2/combat.htm.
- Campbell, 1993
- Bronwyn Rebekah McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany (1999)
- Leila J. Rupp, Mobilizing Women For War: German and American Propaganda, 1939-1945 (1979)
- "Statistics: Women’s Service in the IDF for 2010, 25 Aug 2010". Israel Defense Forces. 25 August 2010. http://idfspokesperson.com/2010/08/25/statistics-womens-service-in-the-idf-for-2010-25-aug-2010/. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
- Lauren Gelfond Feldinger (September 21, 2008). "Skirting history". The Jerusalem Post. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=114834. Retrieved 2011-03-22.
- "Integration of women in the IDF". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 8 March 2009. Archived from the original on 18 December 2012. https://archive.is/g1tU. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- "The Beginning, Women in the Early IDF". IDF Spokesperson. 7 March 2011. http://www.idf.il/1283-9679-en/Dover.aspx. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- JSTOR 20430897
- Kristof, Nicholas D. (NY Times) (April 25, 2003). "A Woman's Place". http://www.ambrosiasw.com/forums/index.php?s=ec38e9ce59c7388c185485da75495be7&showtopic=40740.
- Congresswoman Louise M. Slaughter: Remarks on Women in Combat
- "Royal Navy to allow female sailors on subs". London: Daily Mail. 2010-06-21. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1288304/Royal-Navy-allow-female-officers-aboard-submarines-report-dispels-health-fears.html. Retrieved 2011-04-25.
- "Women, Leadership and the US Military: A Tale of Two Eras". 2010-08-11. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/isn/Current-Affairs/Security-Watch/Detail/?lng=en&ots627=fce62fe0-528d-4884-9cdf-283c282cf0b2&id=123253. Retrieved 2011-04-25.
- "Women in the military - international". Indepth. CBS News. 30 May 2006. Archived from the original on 29 June 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060629013227/http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/military-international/. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
- New Debate on Submarine Duty for Women Armed Forces Careers retrieved August 11, 2007
- Can women go on submarines? United States Navy retrieved March 27, 2008
- Navy Office of Information, “Women on Submarines”, Rhumblines, October 5, 2009.
- Robin Roberts, "The Female Alien: Pulp Science Fiction'S Legacy To Feminists," Journal of Popular Culture, Sep 1987, Vol. 21 Issue 2, pp 33-52
History[edit | edit source]
- Cook, Bernard, ed, (2006). Women and War: Historical Encyclopedia from Antiquity to the Present.
- Elshtain, Jean Bethke. Women and War (1995)
- Elshtain Jean, and Sheila Tobias, eds., Women, Militarism, and War (1990),
- Goldman, Nancy Loring ed. (1982). Female Soldiers--Combatants or Noncombatants? Historical and Contemporary Perspectives.
- Goldstein, Joshua S. . War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa (2003), psychology perspective
- Hacker, Barton C. and Margaret Vining, eds. A Companion to Women's Military History (2012) 625pp; articles by scholars covering a very wide range of topics
- Hall, Richard H. Women on the Civil War battlefront (University Press of Kansas 2006).
- Jones, David. Women Warriors: A History, Brassey's, 1997
- Pennington, Reina, (2003). Amazons to Fighter Pilots: A Biographical Dictionary of Military Women.
- Salmonson, Jessica Amanda (1991). The Encyclopedia of Amazons: Women Warriors from Antiquity to the Modern Era. Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-420-5.
World War II[edit | edit source]
- Biddiscombe, Perry, (2011). "Into the Maelstrom: German Women in Combat, 1944-45," War & Society (2011), 30#1 pp 61–89
- Bidwell, Shelford. The Women's Royal Army Corps (London, 1977) on Britain
- Campbell, D'Ann. Women at War with America: Private Lives in a Patriotic Era (Harvard University Press, 1984). on WW2
- Campbell, D'Ann. "Servicewomen of World War II", Armed Forces and Society (Win 1990) 16: 251-270. statistical study based on interviews
- Campbell, D'Ann. "Women in Combat: The World War Two Experience in the United States, Great Britain, Germany, and the Soviet Union" Journal of Military History (April 1993), 57:301-323. online edition in JSTOR
- Cottam, K. Jean Soviet Airwomen in Combat in World War II (Manhattan, KS: Military Affairs/Aerospace Historian Publishing, 1983)
- DeGroot G.J. "Whose Finger on the Trigger? Mixed Anti-Aircraft Batteries and the Female Combat Taboo," War in History, Volume 4, Number 4, December 1997, pp. 434–453
- Dombrowski, Nicole Ann. Women and War in the Twentieth Century: Enlisted With or Without Consent (1999)
- Dominé, Jean-François, (2008). Les femmes au combat ; l'arme féminine de la France pendant la Seconde Guerre Mondiale
- Hagemann, Karen, (2011). "Mobilizing Women for War: The History, Historiography, and Memory of German Women’s War Service in the Two World Wars," Journal of Military History 75:3 (2011): 1055-1093
- Harfield, Alan, (2005). "The Women's Auxiliary Corps (India)", Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research 83, no 335, 243-254.
- Krylova, Anna, (2010). Soviet Women in Combat: A History of Violence on the Eastern Front.
- Morton, Alison. Military or civilians? The curious anomaly of the German Women's Auxiliary Services during the Second World War. 2012. ASIN B007JUR408
- Markwick, Roger D. (2008). "A Sacred Duty": Red Army Women Veterans Remembering the Great Fatherland War, 1941-1945," Australian Journal of Politics & History, (2008), 54#3 pp. 403-420.
- Maubach, Franka; Satjukow, Silke. (2009). "Zwischen Emanzipation und Trauma: Soldatinnen im Zweiten Weltkrieg (Deutschland, Sowjetunion, USA)" Historische Zeitschrift, (April 2009), Vol. 288 Issue 2, pp 347–384
- Merry, Lois K, (2010). Women Military Pilots of World War II: A History with Biographies of American, British, Russian and German Aviators.
- Pennington, Reina, (2007). Wings, Women & War: Soviet Airwomen in World War II Combat
- Pennington, Reina, (2010). "Offensive Women: Women in Combat in the Red Army in the Second World War" Journal of Military History, July 2010, Vol. 74 Issue 3, p775-820
- Pierson, Ruth Roach. (1986). They're Still Women After All: The Second World War and Canadian Womanhood.
- McBryde, Brenda. (1985). Quiet Heroines: Story of the Nurses of the Second World War, on British
- Sarnecky, Mary T. (1999). A History of the U.S. Army Nurse Corps
- Schwarzkopf, Jutta, (2009). "Combatant or Non-Combatant? The Ambiguous Status of Women in British Anti-Aircraft Batteries during the Second World War." War & Society, 28#2 pp 105–131
- Toman, Cynthia, (2007). An Officer and a Lady: Canadian Military Nursing and the Second World War.
Treadwell, Mattie E. (1954). United States Army in World War II: Special Studies: The Women's Army Corps. the standard history; part of the Army "Green series"
- Williamson, Gordon, (2003). World War II German Women's Auxiliary Services
- Carreiras, Helena and Gerhard Kammel (eds.) Women in the Military and in Armed Conflict (2008) excerpt and text search
- Frampton, James Scott The Influence of Attitudes and Morale on the Performance of Active-Duty United States Marine Corps Female Security Guards (2011),
- Goldman, Nancy. "The Changing Role Of Women In The Armed Forces." American Journal Of Sociology 1973 78(4): 892-911. Issn: 0002-9602 online in Jstor
- Herbert, Melissa S. Camouflage Isn't Only for Combat: Gender, Sexuality, and Women in the Military New York U. Pr., 1998.
- Holm, Jeanne M. (1993). Women in the Military: An Unfinished Revolution. ; women from the United States
- Skaine, Rosemarie. Women at War: Gender Issues of Americans in Combat. McFarland, 1999.
- United States Presidential Commission on the Assignment of Women. (1993) 'Report on the Presidential Commission on the Assignment of Women
Middle East[edit | edit source]
- Holmstedt, Kirsten. Band of Sisters: American Women at War in Iraq (2007) excerpt and text search
- Holmstedt, Kirsten. "The Girls Come Marching Home"
- Wise, James E. and Scott Baron. Women at War: Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Conflicts (2006)
Various[edit | edit source]
- Archer, Emerald M. 2013. "The Power of Gendered Stereotypes in the US Marine Corps." Armed Forces & Society 39 (2) pp. 359-391.
- Booth, Bradford. 2003. “Contextual Effects of Military Presence on Women’s Earnings.” Armed Forces & Society 30: pp. 25–51.
- Cooney et al. 2003. “Racial Differences in the Impact of Military Service on the Socioeconomic Status of Women Veterans.” Armed Forces & Society, vol. 30: pp. 53–85.
- Dar, Yechezkel & Shaul Kimhi. 2004. “Youth in the Military: Gendered Experiences in the Conscript Service in the Israeli Army.” Armed Forces & Society, vol. 30: pp. 433–459.
- Iskra, Darlene. 2007. “Attitudes toward Expanding Roles for Navy Women at Sea: Results of a Content Analysis.” Armed Forces & Society 33: pp. 203–223.
- Mitchell, Brian. 1998. Women in the Military: Flirting with Disaster. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing. xvii, 390 p. 0-89526-376-9
- Moore, Brenda. 1991. “African American Women in the U.S. Military.” Armed Forces & Society 17: pp. 363–384.
Websites[edit | edit source]
- Green Berets
- BBC News Online on May 31, 2002: 'Long, hard struggle' for green beret retrieved on March 12, 2007
- BBC News Online on May 31, 2002: Superwoman Pip's green beret test retrieved on March 12, 2007
- Joan of Arc
- Joan of Arc archive retrieved on March 12, 2007
- Maid of Heaven extensive site about Joan of Arc, retrieved on March 12, 2007
- Women Veterans
- The Betty H. Carter Women Veterans Historical Project located in the Special Collections and University Archives Department at The University of North Carolina at Greensboro
- Textiles and Artifacts from Women in World War 1 located in the Special Collections and University Archives Department at The University of North Carolina at Greensboro
- blitzkriegbaby.de site for Women in the military retrieved on March 12, 2007
- Women in the Military: A Selected Bibliography, Jacqueline S. Bey, 2005, retrieved on March 12, 2007
- Iraqi Bloggers Central: Oldest American Servicewoman Killed In Combat retrieved on March 12, 2007
- militarywoman.org MilitaryWoman retrieved on March 12, 2007
- post-gazette.com retrieved on March 12, 2007
- womensenews.org retrieved on March 12, 2007
- The History of a Hello Girl retrieved on July 17, 2007
- When Janey Comes Marching Home Multi-Media project on women serving in Iraq and Afghanistan in the Virginia Quarterly Review
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