|Head of State of the People's Republic of China |
as Chairman of the NPCSC
28 May 1981 – 18 June 1983
|Preceded by||Soong Ching-ling (as honorary president)|
|Succeeded by||Li Xiannian (as president)|
5 March 1978 – 16 May 1981
|Preceded by||Soong Ching-ling (as chairman of the NPCSC)|
|Succeeded by||Soong Ching-ling (as honorary president)|
|Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress |
5 March 1978 – 18 June 1983
|Preceded by||Soong Ching-ling|
|Succeeded by||Peng Zhen|
|Minister of National Defense of the People's Republic of China|
17 January 1975 – 26 February 1978
|Preceded by||Lin Biao|
|Succeeded by||Xu Xiangqian|
|Member of the|
National People's Congress
15 September 1954 – 6 June 1983
|Constituency||Guangdong At-large (54-59)|
PLA At-large (59-83)
|1st Mayor of Guangzhou|
|Preceded by||Position Created|
|Succeeded by||He Wei|
|Born||28 April 1897|
Mei County, Guangdong
|Died||22 October 1986 (aged 89)|
|Political party||Communist Party of China|
|Alma mater||Whampoa Military Academy|
Ye Jianying (simplified Chinese: 叶剑英; traditional Chinese: 葉劍英; pinyin: Yè Jiànyīng; Wade–Giles: Yeh Chien-ying; Jyutping: Yip Gim-ying; 28 April 1897 – 22 October 1986) was a Chinese communist general, Marshal of the People's Liberation Army, and the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress from 1978 to 1983.
Biography[edit | edit source]
Born Ye Yiwei (simplified Chinese: 叶宜伟; traditional Chinese: 葉宜偉; pinyin: Yè Yíwěi; Wade–Giles: Yeh I-wei) into a wealthy Hakka merchant family in Mei County, Guangdong his courtesy name was Cangbai (滄白). After graduation from the Yunnan Military Academy in 1919, he joined Sun Yat-sen and the Kuomintang (KMT). He taught at the Whampoa Military Academy, and in 1927 joined the Communist Party.
That year, he participated in the failed Nanchang Uprising and was forced to flee to Hong Kong with two other uprising leaders, Zhou Enlai and Ye Ting (unrelated to Ye Jianying), with only a pair of handguns to share between them. Shortly after, he faithfully carried out his assigned duties during the Guangzhou Uprising, although he had been opposed to it; upon this uprising's failure he was once again obliged to flee to Hong Kong with Ye Ting and Nie Rongzhen. However, Ye was far more fortunate than Ye Ting, who was made a scapegoat for the Comintern's failures and forced into exile. Ye was not blamed, and subsequently studied military science in Moscow.
After returning to China in 1932 he joined the Jiangxi Soviet, serving as Chief of Staff of Zhang Guotao's Fourth Front Army. However, after Zhang's fighters met up with Mao Zedong's force during the Long March, the two leaders disagreed on the subsequent move of the Chinese Red Army. Zhang insisted on turning southward to establish a new base in the regions inhabited by Tibetan and Qiang minorities. (This later proved to be a disaster, as Mao had anticipated, with Zhang losing over 75% of his men and retreating to the Communist base at Shaanxi.) During the two leaders' disagreement, Ye – though he was Zhang's Chief of Staff – sided with Mao; and instead of supporting Zhang unconditionally as he had during the Guangzhou Uprising, Ye absconded to Mao's headquarters with Zhang's code books and maps. As a result, Zhang's communications with Comintern were cut, while Mao was able to establish a radio link, leading to Comintern's acceptance of Mao's leadership in the Communist Party of China. Mao would never forget the Ye's contribution, observing later that "Ye Jianying saved the (Chinese Communist) Party, the (Chinese) Red Army, and the (Chinese) Revolution".
During the Long March, Ye assisted Liu Bocheng in directing the crossing of the Yangtze River at Anshunchang and Luding Bridge. After 1936, Ye became director of the offices that liaised with the KMT, first in Xi'an, then in Nanjing and finally in Chongqing. He worked together with Zhou Enlai in this capacity.
After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, Ye was placed in charge of Guangdong, which was to cost him his political career under Mao's reign. Ye understood that the economic conditions in Canton were very different than those in the rest of China, since most Cantonese landlords were peasants themselves who participated in production without exploiting their tenants. He therefore declined to dispossess the landlords, and instead protected their businesses and land. However, Ye's policies contradicted the general directives of the Party-mandated land reform, which emphasized class struggle. His policies deemed too soft, Ye and his local cadres were soon replaced by Lin Biao's, and a much harsher policy was implemented, with Ye's political career effectively over.
However, Mao did not forget what Ye had done for him during the Long March, and thus removed him only from political posts while preserving his military positions. As a result, until 1968, Ye remained active in various military functions, having been made a marshal in 1955. Ye was clever in using his military influence to provide limited support and protection for reformers like Zhao Ziyang, and he was responsible for interfering with assassination attempts on Deng Xiaoping during the Cultural Revolution.
After Lin Biao was overthrown in 1971, Ye's influence grew, and in 1975 he was appointed Defense Minister, taking Lin Biao's post. From 1973, he was also a Vice Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China.
He led the conspiracy of generals and Party elders that overthrew Jiang Qing and the Gang of Four; during initial planning at his residence, he and Li Xiannian communicated by writing, although they sat next to each other, because of the possibility of bugging. Thanks to Ye's support of Hua Guofeng, he was confirmed as vice-chairman at the Eleventh National Congress of the Communist Party of China in 1977. A year later he was appointed Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (i.e. Head of State), filling a post left unoccupied since Zhu De's death in 1976. Because the physical demands Defense Minister were too great for the octogenarian Ye, he resigned from that position in 1980, retaining only the mostly-ceremonial job of vice-chairman. Ye retired completely from the Politburo in 1985 and died a little over a year later at the age of 88.
See also[edit | edit source]
Notes[edit | edit source]
- The position of President was officially abolished again in 1981 after the death of Song Qingling and the functions of head of State were formally transmitted to the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress until June 18, 1983.
||Mayor of Beijing
||Governor of Guangdong
Title last held byLin Biao
|Minister of National Defense of the People's Republic of China
|Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
|Head of State of the People's Republic of China
(as Chairman of the NPC Standing Committee)
as President of the People's Republic of China
|Party political offices|
||Secretary of the CPC Guangdong Committee
Title last held byLin Biao
|Vice Chairman of the Communist Party of China
Served alongside: Zhou Enlai, Hua Guofeng, Deng Xiaoping, Wang Dongxing, Li Desheng, Kang Sheng, Wang Hongwen, Chen Yun, Zhao Ziyang
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