|Minister of Interior|
27 February 1986 – January 1990
|Prime Minister||Atef Sedki|
|Preceded by||Ahmed Rushdi|
|Succeeded by||Abdul Halim Moussa|
|Born||February 28, 1926|
|Died||2 April 1997 (aged 71)|
The United States
|Alma mater||Police Academy|
Zaki Badr (28 February 1926 – 2 April 1997) was an Egyptian major general and the former interior minister of Egypt who served from 1986 to 1990 in the Sedki Cabinet. Badr had a confrontational approach during his term.
Early life and education[edit | edit source]
Career[edit | edit source]
Badr began his career as a policeman. Then he served as the governor of Asyut in the Upper Egypt. He also served in the ministry of interior during the term of Nabawi Ismail, and was in charge of the central region of Minya. He was the key man in the Egyptian government's struggle against the underground extremists cells. He took strong measures on Asyut when extremists rioted in the city after Anwar Sadat's assassination in October 1981.
Minister of Interior[edit | edit source]
Badr was appointed interior minister on 27 February 1986, replacing Ahmed Rushdi in the post. Shortly after his appointment from March to August 1986 Badr fired or transferred hundreds of security officials. He was the most disliked man in the cabinet due to his hardliner approach against Islamic "fundamentalist" movements. He confronted nearly all groups in the society in order to achieve the regime's goal of eliminating Islamist militant entities in Egypt.
Badr also toughly struggled against drug trafficking, black market currency speculation and extremism during his term. On the other hand, human rights activists in Egypt criticised him for the violations of civil liberties, since his brutal policies were experienced everywhere in the country, including the universities. Badr ordered the arrest for the relatives of the fugitive Islamic Group leaders. These people were tortured at Ain Shams police station and the state security intelligence department in Lazughli. This event was one of the triggers of the assassination attempt against Badr in 1989. However, Badr was a frequent and respectful guest at gatherings of Copts, who supported for his iron fist.
Badr was sacked by President Hosni Mubarak in January 1990 and replaced by Abdul Halim Moussa in the post. No explanation was given for the dismissal of Badr. However, a scandal he had been involved was the reason for his removal. On the other hand, Najib Ghadbian regards Badr's removal as one of three steps towards democracy in Egypt occurred in 1990.
Assassination[edit | edit source]
During his term as interior minister on 16 December 1989, Badr became the target of an assassination attempt when a Suzuki pickup truck loaded with gunpowder exploded in a Cairo suburb seconds before his motorcade was to pass. He survived the attack, and nobody was hurt in the blast. The driver of the truck, Youssef Hasan Mahmoud, who was a 24-year-old medical student, was arrested while trying to escape the scene. The perpetrators were the members of the Islamic Group whose relatives had been arrested and tortured earlier, including Ayman Zawahiri.
Controversy[edit | edit source]
When he was interior minister, Badr referred to Islamist extremists as "mad dogs, with all respect to dogs." In 1994, Badr and his successor as interior minister Abdul Halim Moussa accused each other of corruption and wrongdoing.
Personal life[edit | edit source]
Badr was married and had two sons. One of his sons, Ahmad Zaki, was appointed minister of education by Hosni Mobarak in 2010. His family founded a charitable foundation, The Zaki Badr Foundation, in the United States.
Death[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Hicks, Neil (20–22 May 2005). "Problems confronting human rights defenders: New pressure coming from states". Lahore: The International Council on Human Rights Policy. http://www.ichrp.org/files/papers/80/129_-_Problems_Confronting_Human_Rights_Defenders_-_New_Pressure_from_States_Neil_Hicks__12_July_2005.pdf. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- "Zaki Badr, 71, Egyptian Official Who Opposed Islamic Militants". The New York Times. p. 28. http://www.nytimes.com/1997/04/04/world/zaki-badr-71-egyptian-official-who-opposed-islamic-militants.html.
- Dunn, Michael Collins (March 1990). "The Fall of Zaki Badr: A Victory For Egypt's Opposition Press". Washington Report. http://www.wrmea.org/archives/125-washington-report-archives-1988-1993/march-1990/1070-the-fall-of-zaki-badr-a-victory-for-egypts-opposition-press.html. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- Hesham Al-Awadi (15 January 2005). In Pursuit of Legitimacy: The Muslim Brothers and Mubarak, 1982-2000. I.B.Tauris. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-85043-632-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=0u2L-De8TFUC&pg=PA118. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- Ami Ayalon (1995). Middle East Contemporary Survey: 1993 - Vol. 17. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. http://www.questia.com/read/99922925/middle-east-contemporary-survey-1993. Retrieved 14 October 2013. – via Questia (subscription required)
- Hassanein, Omar (16 June 2009). "Most Controversial Interior Minister Nabawi Ismail Passes Away". http://today.almasryalyoum.com/article2.aspx?ArticleID=215308. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- Kifner, John (26 July 1987). "Cairo, in shift, follows Islamic trend". The New York Times. p. 3. http://www.nytimes.com/1987/07/26/world/cairo-in-shift-follows-islamic-trend.html.
- Martin E. Marty; R. Scott Appleby; Nancy T. Ammerman; Robert Eric Frykenberg, Samuel C. Heilman, James Piscatori (1 May 2004). Accounting for Fundamentalisms: The Dynamic Character of Movements. University of Chicago Press. p. 396. ISBN 978-0-226-50886-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=XTDteHrDgfAC&pg=PA396. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- "Hosni Mobarak Fires Top Cabinet Minister". Cairo. 28 February 1986. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=lZdeAAAAIBAJ&sjid=BFANAAAAIBAJ&pg=1242,4496963&dq=zaki+badr&hl=en. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- Ross, Michael (1 March 1986). "Egyptian Army Storms Mutineers' Camp". Cairo. http://articles.latimes.com/1986-03-01/news/mn-13057_1_security-forces-camp. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- Hazem Kandil (13 November 2012). Soldiers, Spies and Statesmen: Egypt's Road to Revolt. Verso Books. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-84467-961-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=cobjjGHmA9UC&pg=PA194. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- Abdalla, Ahmed (January/February 1991). "Mubarak's Gamble". http://www.merip.org/mer/mer168/mubaraks-gamble. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "Egypt: The penal system". Country Data. http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-4191.html. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- Laura Mansfield (30 July 2006). His Own Words: Translation and Analysis of the Writings of Dr. Ayman Al Zawahiri. Lulu.com. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-84728-880-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=Mt5_aNiyqUoC&pg=PA100. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- Cowell, Alan (25 December 1989). "Coptic Monasteries Flourish in Egypt". The New York Times. p. 4. http://www.nytimes.com/1989/12/25/world/coptic-monasteries-flourish-in-egypt.html.
- "Abdel Halim Moussa, 73; Egyptian Official Reached Out to Rebels". 22 July 2003. http://articles.latimes.com/2003/jul/22/local/me-passings22.4. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
- Cowell, Alan (13 January 1990). "Cairo Ousts Hard-Line Interior Minister". The New York Times. p. 3. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/01/13/world/cairo-ousts-hard-line-interior-minister.html.
- Najib Ghadbian (1997). Democratization and the Islamist Challenge in the Arab World. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. p. 93. http://www.questia.com/read/6626602/democratization-and-the-islamist-challenge-in-the. Retrieved 14 October 2013. – via Questia (subscription required)
- Caryle Murphy (22 October 2002). Passion for Islam: Shaping the Modern Middle East: The Egyptian Experience. Simon and Schuster. pp. 78. ISBN 978-0-7432-3743-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=Rjj48T4zrb8C&pg=PA78. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- Edward F. Mickolus (2009). The Terrorist List: The Middle East, Volume 1: A-K. ABC-CLIO. pp. 384. ISBN 978-0-313-35768-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=dj_UiuHRT1IC&pg=PA384. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- "Zaki Badr, 71, Former Egyptian Minister, Opposed To Militants". Cairo. 5 April 2005. http://articles.mcall.com/1997-04-05/news/3152397_1_muslim-militants-muslim-brotherhood-interior-minister. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- "Egypt Interior Minister Unhurt in Bomb Blast". Cairo. 17 December 1989. http://articles.latimes.com/1989-12-17/news/mn-1682_1_islamic-militants. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- "The Operations Man: Ayman al-Zawahiri". The Estimate. 21 September 201. http://www.theestimate.com/public/092101_profile.html. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- Fisk, Robert (21 February 1994). "Algeria's past may be Egypt's future". http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/algerias-past-may-be-egypts-future-corruption-unemployment-violence-and-islamic-fundamentalism--robert-fisk-finds-the-ingredients-of-terror-in-cairo-1395479.html. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- "Egyptians Angry over Corruption among Officials". 1 May 1994. http://www.questia.com/read/1P2-32870111/egyptians-angry-over-corruption-among-officials. Retrieved 30 August 2013. – via Questia (subscription required)
- "Egypt: New Education And Transport Ministers, Five New Governors". Wikileaks. 4 January 2010. http://www.cablegatesearch.net/cable.php?id=10CAIRO33. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- "Mubarak remnants still suffocate the Academic Freedoms" (Press release). ANHRI. 18 July 2012. http://www.anhri.net/en/?p=8996. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- "About Us". The Zaki Badr Foundation. http://www.zakibadr.org/about_us.htm. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
|Minister of Interior
1986 – 1990
Abdul Halim Moussa
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