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Zaki Badr
Minister of Interior

In office
27 February 1986 – January 1990
Prime Minister Atef Sedki
Preceded by Ahmed Rushdi
Succeeded by Abdul Halim Moussa
Personal details
Born (1926-02-28)February 28, 1926
Minya province
Died 2 April 1997(1997-04-02) (aged 71)
The United States
Nationality Egyptian
Children Ahmed Zaki
Alma mater Police Academy
Military service
Rank Major General

Zaki Badr (28 February 1926 – 2 April 1997) was an Egyptian major general and the former interior minister of Egypt who served from 1986 to 1990 in the Sedki Cabinet. Badr had a confrontational approach during his term.[1]

Early life and education[edit | edit source]

Badr was born in the Minya province of the southern Egypt on 28 February 1926.[2] He graduated from police academy in 1946.[3]

Career[edit | edit source]

Badr began his career as a policeman.[2] Then he served as the governor of Asyut in the Upper Egypt.[4][5] He also served in the ministry of interior during the term of Nabawi Ismail, and was in charge of the central region of Minya.[6] He was the key man in the Egyptian government's struggle against the underground extremists cells.[7] He took strong measures on Asyut when extremists rioted in the city after Anwar Sadat's assassination in October 1981.[7]

Minister of Interior[edit | edit source]

Badr was appointed interior minister on 27 February 1986, replacing Ahmed Rushdi in the post.[8][9][10] Shortly after his appointment from March to August 1986 Badr fired or transferred hundreds of security officials.[11] He was the most disliked man in the cabinet due to his hardliner approach against Islamic "fundamentalist" movements.[3] He confronted nearly all groups in the society in order to achieve the regime's goal of eliminating Islamist militant entities in Egypt.[12]

Badr also toughly struggled against drug trafficking, black market currency speculation and extremism during his term.[3] On the other hand, human rights activists in Egypt criticised him for the violations of civil liberties,[13] since his brutal policies were experienced everywhere in the country, including the universities.[4] Badr ordered the arrest for the relatives of the fugitive Islamic Group leaders.[14] These people were tortured at Ain Shams police station and the state security intelligence department in Lazughli.[14] This event was one of the triggers of the assassination attempt against Badr in 1989.[14] However, Badr was a frequent and respectful guest at gatherings of Copts, who supported for his iron fist.[15]

Badr was sacked by President Hosni Mubarak in January 1990[3] and replaced by Abdul Halim Moussa in the post.[16] No explanation was given for the dismissal of Badr.[17] However, a scandal he had been involved was the reason for his removal.[1] On the other hand, Najib Ghadbian regards Badr's removal as one of three steps towards democracy in Egypt occurred in 1990.[18]

Assassination[edit | edit source]

During his term as interior minister on 16 December 1989, Badr became the target of an assassination attempt when a Suzuki pickup truck loaded with gunpowder exploded in a Cairo suburb seconds before his motorcade was to pass.[19][20] He survived the attack,[21] and nobody was hurt in the blast.[22] The driver of the truck, Youssef Hasan Mahmoud, who was a 24-year-old medical student, was arrested while trying to escape the scene.[19][20] The perpetrators were the members of the Islamic Group whose relatives had been arrested and tortured earlier, including Ayman Zawahiri.[14][19][23]

Controversy[edit | edit source]

When he was interior minister, Badr referred to Islamist extremists as "mad dogs, with all respect to dogs."[17] In 1994, Badr and his successor as interior minister Abdul Halim Moussa accused each other of corruption and wrongdoing.[24][25]

Personal life[edit | edit source]

Badr was married and had two sons.[2] One of his sons, Ahmad Zaki, was appointed minister of education by Hosni Mobarak in 2010.[26][27] His family founded a charitable foundation, The Zaki Badr Foundation, in the United States.[28]

Death[edit | edit source]

Badr died at a hospital in the United States on 2 April 1997.[21][28]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Hicks, Neil (20–22 May 2005). "Problems confronting human rights defenders: New pressure coming from states". Lahore: The International Council on Human Rights Policy. http://www.ichrp.org/files/papers/80/129_-_Problems_Confronting_Human_Rights_Defenders_-_New_Pressure_from_States_Neil_Hicks__12_July_2005.pdf. Retrieved 24 December 2012. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Zaki Badr, 71, Egyptian Official Who Opposed Islamic Militants". The New York Times. p. 28. http://www.nytimes.com/1997/04/04/world/zaki-badr-71-egyptian-official-who-opposed-islamic-militants.html. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Dunn, Michael Collins (March 1990). "The Fall of Zaki Badr: A Victory For Egypt's Opposition Press". Washington Report. http://www.wrmea.org/archives/125-washington-report-archives-1988-1993/march-1990/1070-the-fall-of-zaki-badr-a-victory-for-egypts-opposition-press.html. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Hesham Al-Awadi (15 January 2005). In Pursuit of Legitimacy: The Muslim Brothers and Mubarak, 1982-2000. I.B.Tauris. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-85043-632-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=0u2L-De8TFUC&pg=PA118. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  5. Ami Ayalon (1995). Middle East Contemporary Survey: 1993 - Vol. 17. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. http://www.questia.com/read/99922925/middle-east-contemporary-survey-1993. Retrieved 14 October 2013.  – via Questia (subscription required)
  6. Hassanein, Omar (16 June 2009). "Most Controversial Interior Minister Nabawi Ismail Passes Away". http://today.almasryalyoum.com/article2.aspx?ArticleID=215308. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Kifner, John (26 July 1987). "Cairo, in shift, follows Islamic trend". The New York Times. p. 3. http://www.nytimes.com/1987/07/26/world/cairo-in-shift-follows-islamic-trend.html. 
  8. Martin E. Marty; R. Scott Appleby; Nancy T. Ammerman; Robert Eric Frykenberg, Samuel C. Heilman, James Piscatori (1 May 2004). Accounting for Fundamentalisms: The Dynamic Character of Movements. University of Chicago Press. p. 396. ISBN 978-0-226-50886-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=XTDteHrDgfAC&pg=PA396. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  9. "Hosni Mobarak Fires Top Cabinet Minister". Cairo. 28 February 1986. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=lZdeAAAAIBAJ&sjid=BFANAAAAIBAJ&pg=1242,4496963&dq=zaki+badr&hl=en. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  10. Ross, Michael (1 March 1986). "Egyptian Army Storms Mutineers' Camp". Cairo. http://articles.latimes.com/1986-03-01/news/mn-13057_1_security-forces-camp. Retrieved 24 December 2012. 
  11. Hazem Kandil (13 November 2012). Soldiers, Spies and Statesmen: Egypt's Road to Revolt. Verso Books. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-84467-961-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=cobjjGHmA9UC&pg=PA194. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  12. Abdalla, Ahmed (January/February 1991). "Mubarak's Gamble". http://www.merip.org/mer/mer168/mubaraks-gamble. Retrieved 14 January 2013. 
  13. "Egypt: The penal system". Country Data. http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-4191.html. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Laura Mansfield (30 July 2006). His Own Words: Translation and Analysis of the Writings of Dr. Ayman Al Zawahiri. Lulu.com. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-84728-880-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=Mt5_aNiyqUoC&pg=PA100. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  15. Cowell, Alan (25 December 1989). "Coptic Monasteries Flourish in Egypt". The New York Times. p. 4. http://www.nytimes.com/1989/12/25/world/coptic-monasteries-flourish-in-egypt.html. 
  16. "Abdel Halim Moussa, 73; Egyptian Official Reached Out to Rebels". 22 July 2003. http://articles.latimes.com/2003/jul/22/local/me-passings22.4. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 Cowell, Alan (13 January 1990). "Cairo Ousts Hard-Line Interior Minister". The New York Times. p. 3. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/01/13/world/cairo-ousts-hard-line-interior-minister.html. 
  18. Najib Ghadbian (1997). Democratization and the Islamist Challenge in the Arab World. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. p. 93. http://www.questia.com/read/6626602/democratization-and-the-islamist-challenge-in-the. Retrieved 14 October 2013.  – via Questia (subscription required)
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Caryle Murphy (22 October 2002). Passion for Islam: Shaping the Modern Middle East: The Egyptian Experience. Simon and Schuster. pp. 78. ISBN 978-0-7432-3743-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=Rjj48T4zrb8C&pg=PA78. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 Edward F. Mickolus (2009). The Terrorist List: The Middle East, Volume 1: A-K. ABC-CLIO. pp. 384. ISBN 978-0-313-35768-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=dj_UiuHRT1IC&pg=PA384. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 "Zaki Badr, 71, Former Egyptian Minister, Opposed To Militants". Cairo. 5 April 2005. http://articles.mcall.com/1997-04-05/news/3152397_1_muslim-militants-muslim-brotherhood-interior-minister. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  22. "Egypt Interior Minister Unhurt in Bomb Blast". Cairo. 17 December 1989. http://articles.latimes.com/1989-12-17/news/mn-1682_1_islamic-militants. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  23. "The Operations Man: Ayman al-Zawahiri". The Estimate. 21 September 201. http://www.theestimate.com/public/092101_profile.html. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  24. Fisk, Robert (21 February 1994). "Algeria's past may be Egypt's future". http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/algerias-past-may-be-egypts-future-corruption-unemployment-violence-and-islamic-fundamentalism--robert-fisk-finds-the-ingredients-of-terror-in-cairo-1395479.html. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  25. "Egyptians Angry over Corruption among Officials". 1 May 1994. http://www.questia.com/read/1P2-32870111/egyptians-angry-over-corruption-among-officials. Retrieved 30 August 2013.   – via Questia (subscription required)
  26. "Egypt: New Education And Transport Ministers, Five New Governors". Wikileaks. 4 January 2010. http://www.cablegatesearch.net/cable.php?id=10CAIRO33. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  27. "Mubarak remnants still suffocate the Academic Freedoms" (Press release). ANHRI. 18 July 2012. http://www.anhri.net/en/?p=8996. Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  28. 28.0 28.1 "About Us". The Zaki Badr Foundation. http://www.zakibadr.org/about_us.htm. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
Political offices
Preceded by
Ahmed Rushdi
Minister of Interior
1986 – 1990
Succeeded by
Abdul Halim Moussa

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